A Capitol Tour of the Library of Congress

A Capitol Tour of the Library of Congress


>>From the Library of
Congress in Washington D.C. [ Silence ]>>Susan Mordan White: All
right, ladies and gentlemen. So welcome to our 11:00 session
of docent training today. We are very happy to have
with us Janice McKelvey, who is a longtime volunteer
with the Library of Congress, and also was a volunteer over
the Capitol Visitor Center. And one of the things that
Janice took upon herself was to find more out about
what the Library was like when it was housed over
in the Capitol Building. So she’s done an immense
amount of research on her own. She’s spoken with
historians, and spent hours over in the archives at the Capitol putting all
this great information together for us. So we thank Janice
for being here today, and sharing a Capitol tour
of the Library of Congress.>>Janice McKelvey:
Thank you, Susan.>>Susan Mordan White:
Thank you.>>Janice McKelvey: So I have
spoken with many of you all. As you all know,
I’m a coordinator, so I’ll be working
with all of you. And I really, really
look forward to that. This is one of the best
times of year at the Library with the new class graduating. It’s just very exciting,
lots of fun, very festive. So, as Susan mentioned,
I was a volunteer, still a volunteer also here, but a coordinator,
an employee as well. And I did volunteer at the Capitol Visitor
Center for several years. And actually I’m doing that
again a little bit in January. So, yes, I became really
interested in the spaces that where the Library was in
the Capitol during that time. The main point of my
presentation, which I’ll go into in just a moment, is that the Thomas Jefferson
Building did not spring from the head of Zeus. There is a very rich
architectural tradition behind the Thomas Jefferson Building. And, so, that is my main goal. I want you to understand
that tradition. Maybe or maybe not share
it with your groups. That’s fine. But it’s just important
to understand that there’s a context
for this building. So let’s get right to it. I acknowledge this, as I
mentioned, let me just go through the aims
of my presentation, and also to mention
that, if it’s possible, if we can hold questions
until the end, unless I am so unintelligible
that you really need to clarify something,
or if I make no sense. Okay? But just for time’s
sake that we can do that. And then I’m happy to stay
afterwards to answer questions. And, of course, you will be
seeing me regularly in your job, your newly minted
jobs, as docents. So here’s the thing. The main points of
my presentation are that the Library of Congress
that Benjamin Latrobe, as you all know, who was the
first architect of the Capitol, started a century-long
process with Thomas Jefferson. They started architectural
and iconographic traditions which continued through
the innovative designs of Charles Bulfinch and Thomas
Walter, eventually resulting in our magnificent Thomas
Jefferson Building today. These traditions include
homage and tribute to ancient cultures’
advancements in, and methods of, the transmission of learning. Okay? The Library became
a symbol of patriotism and accomplishment early. And I’m talking 1808. And we are going to look at
that in detail in just a moment. Careful attention to storing
and preserving printed materials in beautiful and majestic, as
well as very functional spaces. Okay? The adaptation of
neo-classical design conventions to American themes
and landscape, including the introduction
of Roman gods and goddesses to celebrate American
achievement, and the use of the
allegorical female to represent noble
human attributes. The use of innovative and
cutting edge technology not only to preserve the collections
and safeguard them from fire, in particular, but
also to make the space as noteworthy architectural
achievements. And also to provide as much
natural light as possible. There are many, many artistic
continuities between the Capitol and the Thomas Jefferson
Building. And many of the same
artists, particularly in the late 19th century,
early 20th century, that worked on the Jefferson
Building went on to work at the Capitol, or
worked at the Capitol, worked at the Jefferson
Building, and went back and forth. So I will talk about
that as I go along, too. So those are the main
aims of my presentation. Let’s start on in. Okay. Thomas Jefferson brings
neo-classical architecture to the United States. This is, again, as he did
this in the early 1800s, this is a tradition that, of
course, we live with today. He designed the very
first expression of neo-classical architecture, which is the Virginia
State Capitol right here. And indeed he ripped off
this design completely from the Maison Cafe,
which is in Nimes, France. So he just took the
Maison Cafe and lifted it, and put it in Richmond, Virginia
as the Virginia State Capitol. In a letter to Pierre
L’Enfant, 1791, Jefferson expressed a desire for a Capitol building designed
after, quote, “One of the models of antiquity which have
had the approbation of thousands of years.” Jefferson believed that American
taste could improve by exposure to copies of classical
Roman architecture adapted to our new country. He also believed that the
Capitol could provide the premier example of architecture
in the United States. And he hoped this style would be
copied throughout the country. And, of course, as we all know,
it was to a certain extent. He put a huge amount of
care and attention to detail in the design of the Capitol. Some scholars say as much
as he did to Monticello. I’m not sure. But it’s important
for you all to know that that he was
extremely detail oriented in making those decisions. In 1807, Benjamin Latrobe
writes to Thomas Jefferson, and I quote, “It is no
flattery to say that YOU,” and the caps are
Latrobe’s, y, o, u, in caps, “have planted the
arts in your country. The works already erected in
this city are the monuments of your judgment and of
your zeal and of your taste. The first,” and again
the caps are Latrobe’s, “sculpture that adorned an
American public building perpetuates your love and
protection of the arts.” Okay? So Thomas Jefferson has a
role in our Jefferson Building that is quite apart
from the Library. What he is doing is
establishing a tradition which then is carried through
into our building today, and its design and construction. Okay. So let’s start
at the beginning. William Thornton is the very
first architect of the Capitol. In 1797, much of the
central facade of Thornton, today central facade
particularly on the east side, is Thornton’s other works
in our area, of course, and by Thornton our Octagon
House and Tudor Place and Woodlawn Plantation. By the way, he was born
in 1759 in Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands. He was a physician, an inventor,
a painter and an architect. And his design for the Capitol
was indeed accepted in 1793. He was inspired by the Louvre
and also by the Pantheon. And this is his original design. This dome, as you know, is definitely not the
dome we have today. But this facade is the facade
that really remains today. Can everybody see my cursor? Okay. So the original
north wing of the Library. You may be familiar
with this print. This is the William
Russell Birch drawing. Very, very famous. I think it’s even
still on display and opposite Jefferson’s
Library. So here we are. This is the east
front, northeast front, where the Senate is today. This is the Senate
wing looking west. So this is down the mall. Are we clear? Okay. Now here this
photograph was taken by me in January of 2016. So the Library of Congress
was originally located in these offices. And just to orient you,
you can see the dome. We are now looking west. So this is the west front. Excuse me. We’re looking east. This is the west front
that faces the mall. Is everybody okay? So the Library of Congress
was originally located in this space. And it is indeed difficult to overstate the
importance of that space. By the way, today, and for many
years, it has been the offices of the Republican
Senate leadership. Of course, today is
Senator McConnell. Okay. So here we
have a floor plan. This is a configuration
that was done by Bill Allen and his seminal work
on the Capitol. So, again, this is that west
Senate front where the Library of Congress was located,
the Clerk of the House, and so forth, the
Senate gallery level, [inaudible] hall, et cetera. Now, again, it is hard to overstate the
importance of these rooms. First of all, the House of
Representatives first met here, gaveled to order, on
November the 17th 1800 by Theodore Sedgwick
of Massachusetts. The Library of Congress
was established there. The election of 1800,
the very famous election of Thomas Jefferson as
president, was decided. Remember that election
was thrown to the House of Representatives. So these rooms not only home
to the Library of Congress, but many, many important
historical events happened there. And also the Supreme Court and the Senate shared
this space as well. Okay? Senator McConnell’s staff
very graciously let me in their reception area. I took these pictures
before the inauguration. So actually in the reception
room looking down the mall. This is the construction of the
bleachers for the inauguration. This is the reception area. The staff, bless their hearts, said that this fireplace
that’s there was original, and survived the burning
of the Capitol in 1914. Not totally clear on that. But that’s what they told me,
so I’ll just go with that not. Not sure though. Next, we have Benjamin
Latrobe becomes architect of the Capitol, indeed
before the fire. Benjamin Latrobe an absolute
genius architect, engineer, artist, absolutely
brilliant man. He was born in Yorkshire,
England. One of the first formally
trained architects in the United States. He was also a painter,
by the way. He traveled widely throughout
Europe, mastered German, French, ancient and modern
Greek, and Latin. He emigrated to the U.S.
in 1796, designed the Bank of Pennsylvania, as you
see here, the first example of Greek Revival architecture
in the United States. He also designed the
Baltimore Basilica, the first Roman Catholic
cathedral in the United States. You can see similarities
with Jefferson– that education, that
travel in Europe. All of those things. You just know immediately that these two are
going to become friends. And, indeed, their
partnership lives with us today. Their partnership, as we
will see, affects a lot of the decisions that went into
the Thomas Jefferson Building. He worked on the Capitol from
1803 until the war of 1812, and then again starting in 1815. Other notable buildings
by Latrobe in our area include St.
John’s Episcopal Church on Lafayette Square, St. Paul’s
in my hometown of Alexandria, of course, the Baltimore
Basilica, which I just referenced. This is widely regarded as his real masterpiece
in this country. And then also I love the
gate to the Navy Yard, right down the street from us. Next. All right. So this is the picture,
this is the rendering, this is the drawing that really
inspired so much of my research. This is Benjamin Latrobe’s
original design for the Library of Congress space
in the Capitol. So where I showed you
where I oriented you to Senator McConnell’s offices,
this is Latrobe’s vision of what the Library
would be in the Capitol. It is a grand space referencing
a great culture of the past. In this case, ancient Egypt. This room is the first
Egyptian revival proposal in the United States. [inaudible] Latrobe brings
which becomes, by the way, very popular after this. This is the first example of an Egyptian revival
room in the United States. Its innovative and unusual
architectural design features exotic Papyrus columns. Look at these blade columns. Papyrus. This is
referencing ancient Egypt, but also Egypt’s
contribution to writing, and to the written word. And, of course, we see that
in the Jefferson Building in our beautiful
Blashfield mural. So here we have these
exotic Papyrus columns. Note the sunlight coming in. So he’s all about natural
light coming into the Library. He’s got meticulous detail. Look at the fireplace
with the map over it, the alcoves of books. Latrobe designed this
Library to fit 40,000 volumes. Okay? He was probably inspired
by Napoleon’s conquest of Egypt, but also perhaps by the
architecture of Freemasonry. Anybody who is familiar with
Freemasonry architecture, particularly, I would cite
the George Washington National Masonic Memorial in
Alexandria, and, of course, the temple on 16th Street. A lot of Egyptian architecture
and references in Freemasonry. So according to Pamela Scott
in an article for, actually, the Library of Congress
magazine, this was in 1995, and the title of the article
is called “Temple of Liberty: Building a Capitol
for a New Nation.” And I quote Pamela Scott,
“During the first five years of Latrobe’s tenure he
established that the Capitol was to be a living catalog of Western European
architectural traditions, including American
contributions. The most exotic was his Egyptian
revival Library of Congress. Latrobe’s curiosity about ancient Egyptian
architecture was probably both stimulated by Napoleon’s
Egyptian campaigns of 1798 and ’99, had the
Library been finished. This room was never built. Sadly it was never built. Latrobe’s north wing,
so that whole north wing that I showed you
in my photograph, would have housed
Greek Doric columns in the old Supreme Court below,
Ionic columns in the Senate, columns, caryatids, three
American orders of columns, exotic lotus and Papyrus
columns of the Library. So what Latrobe was
doing was mixing and matching American
themes along with ancient architectural
traditions. According to ancient Renaissance
architectural theory, and I’m quoting Pamela
Scott again, “Columns represented peoples. Perhaps Latrobe intended
his variety of columns as a symbolic statement about
America’s diverse population. “Okay. So cavetto cornices, this
is one architectural feature, again, had not been done. These are his cavetto cornices. I had no idea what a cavetto
cornice was, so I looked it up. And here are some in the
Temple of Isis in Egypt. So this is what this looks like. And, of course, he’s also paying
homage to the Ancient Library of Alexandria in Egypt. Okay. Now these are some
very beloved features that are in the Capitol still. As a matter of fact, what Benjamin Latrobe does is
taking ancient architectural traditions, and Americanizing
them. Very famously, the
Corn Cob Capitals, which you can see
in the Senate foyer. We also have tobacco
leaves right here. This is in the Senate Rotunda. And we have Water Leaf
Capitals in the Senate gallery. These were never built. But what I’m trying to show you
is how Latrobe has taken ancient traditions and Americanized
them in his vision. Now this is his, I love this,
this is his west front design for the Capitol, and with
the propylaea, again, sort of referencing
ancient Greece. And this is the very first
rendering that I can find of Minerva-Athena
on Capitol Hill. This is Latrobe’s vision of
what Athena, and what she was to be done, she was to be placed
right here on the west front. So this begins the very
long tradition, as you know, of Minerva appearing on
Capitol Hill, or Athena, depending on how you look at it. So moving. Now let’s go to the fire. Indeed. I am going to quote
the architecture, excuse me, the architect of
the Capitol website in a description of the fire. This is the best I found. And this dispels a lot
of myths that, indeed, a lot of us were taught, a lot
of us who have been docents for a while, a lot
of us were taught. So just take careful
attention on the order in which the British
go through the Capitol. If you hear, which I
still do, Capitol guides and other tour guides
say that the Library of Congress books
were transported to what it’s now Statuary
Hall and used as kindling, that is absolutely false. Absolutely false. So it’s up to you as
to whether you want to correct our colleagues
or not on that. So I am going to
quote the architect of the Capitol website. “The British focused
their destructive work on the principal rooms
forgoing the lobbies, halls and staircases. Thus securing their
escape route. In the south wing, soldiers
ignited a giant bonfire.” So here we are, the south
wing, “Giant bonfire of furniture slathered with
gunpowder paste in the Hall of the House of Representatives,”
now Statuary Hall. “The heat from the
fire grew so intense that it melted the glass
skylights, and destroyed much of the carved stone in the room, including Giuseppe Franzoni’s
life-size marble statue of Liberty,” which we’ll
talk about in a moment. It’s located above
the speaker’s rostrum. “Downstairs the Clerk’s office
was transformed into an inferno of burning documents
and furniture. The fire produced a heat so
great that it forced the British to retreat from the south
wing, leaving half the rooms on the first floor unscathed.” Okay? “In the Supreme Court
chamber, on the first floor of the north wing, which
is right here, troops piled up furniture from nearby rooms to create another great bonfire
severely damaging the Doric stone columns. Upstairs the large room,
that then housed the Library of Congress,” which remember
this is looking west, so the Library of Congress
we can’t see from here, because this is the eastern
rooms, “Upstairs the large room, that then housed the Library
of Congress’s collection of over 3,000 books, served
as ready stockpile of fuel. The space burned so fiercely
that it endangered a portion of the exterior stone wall. From the Library wind
spread from the flames to the Senate chamber,” which
was essentially right in here, “where damage to the art and
architecture was severe.” So clearly, as you know, the fire was obviously
extremely destructive. But it could have
been much worse. And I would need to pay
tribute to Benjamin Latrobe, also to the rainstorm. You all may know
that a rainstorm within 24 hours helped
to put out the fire. But Latrobe insisted on marble
and stone for the Capitol, at great expense, by the way. But that was an insistence
on fireproof materials for the Capitol, too, in
the eventualities of fire. So, as you know, surviving
the 1814 fire in the Capitol, the old Supreme Court
technically did survive. This is, again, one of
Latrobe’s masterpieces. This ceiling is unbelievable. It survived, but he
deemed it unsafe. And, so, it was rebuilt. Also these columns,
as we’ve seen. And then this is the
foyer as you walk into the north wing,
that Senate foyer. This all survived the fire. And actually this was an
escape route for the British. After the Capitol burns, of
course, Congress relocates to Blodgett’s Hotel, I’m sure
you all have studied about that, which wasn’t a hotel at all. And then eventually, in July
1815, the cornerstone is laid for the old brick
Capitol, which is located where the Supreme
Court is today. Okay now. So rebuilding
the Capitol after the fire. This statue is magnificent. And it is still in
the old Supreme Court. It is representative of a
decision that was made in 1805 after a particularly generous
appropriation from Congress. Latrobe and Thomas Jefferson
decide that the Capitol, they decided together, that the
Capitol would indeed incorporate themes from ancient
Greece and Rome. Okay? And, so, in doing so what
they did was they wrote a friend of Jefferson’s, a man named
Philip Mazzei, who was in Italy, and they arranged for the
transportation of a number of sculptors from Italy
to the United States, including the Franzoni brothers. Now Giuseppe Franzoni came
up with a plan for a statue like this before
the fire of 1814. But, unfortunately,
it was not executed. After the fire he
had passed away. So his brother Carlo,
actually, finishes this statue. It is called “Justice.” It is in 1817. And it’s still in the
old Supreme Court. Now a lot of elements in
this statue, or this group of figures I should say, carry through to the
Thomas Jefferson Building. So right away there are
a number of innovations that Giuseppe Franzoni
decides to incorporate. Number one, here we have Justice
as a seated female figure, or as a female figure
with her scales. Heretofore, Justice had had, as you’ve probably
seen, a blindfold. But Franzoni decides to
turn this around completely on its end, and clear-eyed
Justice. This is one of the first
examples that we can find, certainly in the United States,
where Justice is clear-eyed. And scholars have
interpreted this as in America Justice’s
clear-eyed, she doesn’t need a
blindfold to be impartial. She is clear-eyed. She knows what she’s doing. She will always be fair and execute justice
clear-eyed without a blindfold. Also, heretofore, here we
have before, as you all know, Minerva, or Athena Minerva, is
usually depicted with an owl. But here the owl is
seated with Justice. The owl is with Justice. And, indeed, the books,
Wisdom, has an American Eagle. So, again, we are taking ancient
Greek and Roman traditions and Americanizing them. So in this statue the learning and education is
really the property, if you will, of America. In other words, we’re
taking that and mixing up those metaphors. So here we have Justice with
her new clear-eyed fashion, with her scales. She also has the sword,
which we see later. She’s looking towards a
[inaudible]-eyed figure, a genius figure. And we all I’m sure know about Philip Martiny’s
magnificent genius figures in the Great Hall. Here is a male genius
figure with wings with a of the United States
Constitution, and the light of truth. So this statue begins so
many icons that are present in Capitol Hill and
America, and certainly in the Thomas Jefferson
Building. This is 1817. Next, we have Liberty
by Enrico Causici. The original Liberty statue
burned during the fire of 1814, but it was rebuilt. This is in Statuary Hall today. It’s almost 14 feet high. This is an allegorical
female representing liberty, holding the Constitution
in her right hand, and an American Eagle
to her right. The serpent representing
wisdom on her left wrapped around a column section. This replaced Giuseppe
Franzoni’s seated Liberty, as I mentioned, that
was destroyed by fire. And this isn’t plaster,
by the way. There were always intentions
to make this in marble, or to copy it and
make it in marble. But it never happened. However, Clio, if you
go to Statuary Hall, one of the most beloved statues,
actually, in the building. I love Clio. And we owe a lot to Clio for
the Thomas Jefferson Building. Here we have Clio,
the muse of History, standing on her winged
chariot, or car. That’s why it’s called
the “Car of History.” The car stands on a marble
globe, where the signs of the zodiac are
carved in relief. The chariot wheel is
the face of a clock. The workings of which
were installed by the very famous clock
maker Simon Willard in 1834. She’s turning the
pages of a book, representing the importance of
learning throughout history. I hope these themes are
sounding familiar to you. George Washington is
on here on relief, one of the very first
examples in the United States of a real historic figure
connected to an allegorical one. And, again, I hope
this sounds familiar. Clio was commissioned
for the House chamber. And she stays there today. So here we have Charles
Bulfinch who is hired to redesign the Capitol
after the fire. He is most famous for the
Massachusetts Statehouse, you may know. He was born in Boston in 1763. He died in 1844. His most famous commission,
as I mentioned, the Statehouse of Massachusetts
of 1795 to 1798. That’s quite a bit before
when he comes to Washington. He’s hired by President James
Monroe and the Commissioner of Public Buildings in 1818
to replace Benjamin Latrobe as the architect of the Capitol. He continued the
restoration of the two wings, which were reopened in 1819. He designed the domed
center of the Capitol, and oversaw its construction
between 1818 and 1826. Andrew Jackson terminated
his employment and the position in 1829. And, so, here we have Charles
Bulfinch’s finished Capitol design as of 1832. Now here we have the east
front of the U.S. Capitol. This is by John Rubens Smith. So today our Library would
essentially be right here, the Thomas Jefferson Building. This is the east front. And then, of course,
here is the west front. Now, 1832, notice that
there’s cows and pigs grazing, and the trees, and the bucolic
setting that the Capitol was in. What I’m about to show
you is Bulfinch’s design for the Library of Congress,
which is now moved from here, from this north wing, it’s moved
to the center, to the center. And here is his design. Now this is the only extant
drawing of Bulfinch’s Library. The only extant drawing. Note it’s a grand
magnificent space. In its day it also was
a tourist destination. It is finished in 1824. Bulfinch is very,
very aware of fire and how books provide
excellent kindling. So he designed a stove,
this is his drawing, a stove that is vented,
actually, out through the floor, that has no flames,
here it is, for warmth. And I’m going to quote William
Allen right now, who wrote, as I said, the seminal work on
the construction of the Capitol, or one of the seminal works,
actually, the most recent.” These columns were
designed after the Tower of the Winds in Greece. Each Capitol took
over 40 days to carve. The Library was designed to
hold 40,000 books arranged in deep alcoves off
the main level, and shallow alcoves here.” George Waterston, who, actually,
was Librarian of Congress, one of our Librarians of
Congress, but he then, this is afterwards, in
1842 he writes a guide to Washington, like
a travel guide. And I’m quoting him. Quote, “Several presents
have been made to the Library since its origin. Among these there was a
splendid and valuable collection of medals designed by [foreign
name], and executed by order of the French government. The series commences in
1796, and ends in 1815, and embraces all the
battles and events which occurred during
the reign of Napoleon.” “Marble bust of Washington,
Jefferson, Lafayette, Judge Marshall, John
Quincy Adams, Van Buren, and plaster busts of Jackson
and [inaudible], and a medallion of Madison, most of them
standing on pedestals, are placed in different
parts of the room.” So the key point that that
account gives you is the Library is a space to receive gifts
from foreign governments, it’s a space, which we
heard about a little bit with Elizabeth [inaudible]
presentation, it’s a space to receive gifts and to display
important statues and icons and art, particularly related
to American patriotism. Okay? Now another first-hand
account, Robert Mills, architect of, I hope you
know, the Treasury Building, so many buildings in Washington. And I’m quoting Robert Mills. “A melancholy reminiscence, over
the mantelpiece at the south end of the room, a fine portrait of
Columbus and America’s Vespucci. On each of side door leading to the balcony are two
beautiful marble busts, one of Thomas Jefferson by the
celebrated Giuseppe Ceracchi.” The Jefferson bust had on
its pedestal cherub heads and the signs of the zodiac, and
an inscription in Latin saying, quote, “To the supreme
order of the universe under whose watchful
care the liberties of North America were
finally achieved, and whose tutelage the name of Thomas Jefferson will descend
forever blessed to posterity.” I love that quote. Can you tell? Important to note that in
Bulfinch’s Library volumes were arranged according to Thomas
Jefferson’s original scheme. Okay? Memory, reason
and imagination. Very important to understand by his original scheme
and classification. Okay. And another date,
I’m hoping you all remember in your tours, is 1851,
the major fire that, just for the record, it had
nothing to do with Thomas, excuse me, Charles Bulfinch. It was caused by a chimney
that backed up onto the Library that was not properly
maintained by Congress. There’s a lot of documentation
about writing letters– this chimney is dangerous,
there’s a hole, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. And sure enough sparks flew
through the hole in the chimney, entered the wall of the Library,
and things went on from there. Okay. So, as you all know, two-thirds of Jefferson’s
books are burned, two-thirds of the
library is burned, Charles Bulfinch’s
magnificent structure is gone. Enter Thomas Ustick Walter,
again, an architectural genius, born in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. He received early
training in masonry. His father was a Mason, and
he was also a Freemason, as was Benjamin Latrobe. He apprenticed in the Office
of William Strickland. He was fourth architect of
the Capitol from 1851 to 1865. Next to the Capitol,
his most famous and acclaimed building is
Girard College, among the last and grandest examples of the Greek Revival
movement in the United States. He was one of the founders
and the second president of the American Institute
of Architects. He was architect of the Capitol when the 1851 fire
consumed the Library. And, so, he is tasked with rebuilding the
Library of Congress. So here is his floorplan
that he comes up with. And, so, just to orient you all,
here is the Capitol Rotunda. He designs a Library here. This is the central section,
so this is the very center where Bulfinch’s
Library was located. He also designs a north
wing and a south wing, and then with reading rooms and
committee rooms for Congress. Are we oriented? So this is the west center,
west facade of the Capitol. Are we clear? Okay. Excellent. Okay. Here are some
of his renderings. So this is south looking north. So this is a cross-section,
south looking north. This is that main central space
that I’m just about to show you. And here is another one. The main central space,
north wing and south wing. Now, just to clarify, the main
central space was constructed, as we’ll see finished in
1852, actually in 1853. The north and south
wings were not done until after the Civil War. Okay. So moving right along. All right. Get comfy for a moment
because we are looking at Walters’ design
for the Library of Congress as it was built up. But these are original drawings. We are looking at one of the greatest architectural
masterpieces in the United States
at the time. No question about it. It took him only three
weeks after the 1851 fire to design one of the most
extraordinary examples in American architecture. And I’m going to quote
Bill Allen again. Quote, “A sparkling
incombustible cast iron Library free of any wood, except for
might be used for furnishing.” So while this was not
the very first iron room in the United States, it
was one of the very first. It also had the very first
iron roof in the United States. The entire thing is iron. Okay? It is open to great
acclaim to the general public on August the 23rd, 1853,
and was an amazing feat of design and construction. Finished in 18 months. In a letter to the Secretary of
the Interior at the end of 1852, Walters describes
the color scheme. And I quote. “All of the plain surfaces of
the ceiling, both horizontal and vertical, to be gilded
in three shades of gold leaf, so disposed as to give
effects to the depth and effects to the panels. All the ornamental
moldings, pendants and drops of the ceiling to be
finished in gold bronze, and the prominent parts
to be tipped with gold, burnished so as to produce
decided and sparkling effect against the dead gold surfaces.” By the way, these are
all skylights here. So the ceiling he’s
referencing is this. “The large consoles,”
each of which, by the way, weighed three tons, they’re
here, okay, “The large consoles to be painted in light bronze
green, tipped with gold bronze, and burnished gold for the
purpose of giving relief to the fruits and foliage. All of the cases, railings
and remaining iron were to be finished with light gold
bronze, tipped on all the parts which received the strongest
light with burnished gold.” Have you counted the
number of shades of gold? Eleven. Okay. It must have looked
like Eldorado. It must have looked, seriously. And here is a picture
of the finished product. Most of the photographs
I’m going to show you are maddeningly
undated. This has been a real
challenge to me as a researcher,
very, very difficult. In general what I have
done is I’m assuming that the more pristine the
photograph, like this one, the less clutter, the less
stuff, is before 1870. And you all know why. After 1870 things
clutter up very quickly. Okay? So the photographs
you’re going to see I culled from New York Public Library,
from Architect of the Capitol, from the U.S. Capitol
Historical Society, and our own collections. So it opens, as I mentioned,
in 1853 to great acclaim. Let’s look at some of
the contemporary accounts of what people are saying
about Walters’ masterpiece. The Daily National
Intelligencer, August 15th, 1853. Quote, “The Congress
Library will be in order for the Tuesday opening when the
public will be admitted to one of the most gorgeous and
beautiful halls in the world. At first view of this enchanting
room, thousands will experience, as we did, a glow of
rapturous delight, not unmixed with something
of a selfish sentiment of congratulations
that as citizens of Washington we are endowed
with so great a privilege as this Library affords, a source of national
pride and patriotism.” Sound familiar? I hope. Next, the evening star. Quote, “The Congressional
Library room, a grand affair, this morning the newly built
and splendid reorganized Library of Congress was thrown
open to the public. And a large number of ladies
and gentlemen availed themselves of the opportunity
to take a look at it. It is a gorgeous hall indeed. And it is fitted up in a style
of unequaled magnificence. Every article of furniture
and other workmanship is of American manufacture.” Again, source of
pride and patriotism. And, next, “Life in
Washington, Life Here and There” by Mary Jones [inaudible]. So, again, we’re back
in the travelogue mode. “Life Here and There.” This is October of 1857. “There is hardly any object
in our city more suggestive or more frequented than the
magnificent reading room of the Library of Congress. Designed by eminent
architecture Mr. Walter, whose glass ceiling veined by
cornicing, fluting in garlands, seems bright like burnished
gold mingled in wreaths of gilded leaves and lilies. When we paid our last visit, we
found it gaily peopled as usual. Couch is filled with groups
conversing in customary library under tone, which is, of
course, a drowsy murmur. In spite of the early hour, we saw in the various
alcoves scores of mute readers who sometimes lifted up
a glance as we passed, and then like Dante’s ghosts
relapsed into their penance.” Now I love that. “Dante’s ghost relapsed
into their penance.” Note what is missing here. And note the differences between
this, the Bulfinch Library and, indeed, some of like the Thomas
Jefferson Building today. Note the absence of
lots of decoration. You are not seeing
statuary here. Clearly the Walters’
Library the stars of the show are the
iron and the books. The iron and the books. He is not going into
that ancient Roman and Greek tradition. We do have the lilies
and the garlands, and all those kinds of things. But we don’t have
representational sculpture. We don’t have displays here. It’s a masterpiece
in and of itself. The star of the show–
the iron and the books. Now here are other photographs. This, indeed, is the north
wing after the Civil War. I know that it’s north wing. I’m surmising that, oh, I
know it’s after the Civil War, because the north
wing wasn’t done then. But I believe this was taken
probably on the opening of the north wing,
because it was the first to open, because it’s empty. It’s totally empty. And note, this is
very important, Walters’ original drawings
only had three stories. But things are already
starting to happen, because we have a fourth story
here, okay, that was built out. And this, I am 99% sure, I’ve
done a lot of research on this, this is the south wing. This had not been identified. This was not identified
as the south wing. But, as we’ll see later on,
I took other photographs that I know were the south wing
after it’s demolished, and, indeed, I matched
up the windows. So this is the south wing. Okay? This is as we move along. You will see there’s a reference to Librarian Spofford’s
table here. And note all the
books underneath. So this is Spofford’s desk. And we’ll see in
photographs as we go along. Okay? There’s a long story with
this, which I won’t go into. The point of this though is
I thought this was later. I thought this was probably
around 1870 or 1869. But what’s really interesting,
and important from my research, is that the Library is now,
for the first time, a display. There’s this painting
randomly on display. So I started researching,
“What in the world is this? Who did it? Why is it there?” So I’ll shorten the story. Happy to go into
it in more detail. But here’s the deal. It’s Albert Bierstadt’s
Mount Hood. And this was painted in 1865. Albert Bierstadt, you may or
may not know, has two paintings in the Capitol, which I’m going
to skip ahead for a moment, two paintings in the Capitol–
the “Discovery of the Hudson” and “Entrance into Monterey.” And if you go to the
Capitol on the east side, the south east steps, that
magnificent staircase, these two paintings
are on display. It’s a long story. But Albert Bierstadt had
a ten-year-long campaign to get commissioned to
do art in the Capitol. What he was trying to do
was follow in the footsteps of his mentor Emanuel Leutze’s “Westward Course Empire Takes
Its Way,” which was commissioned in 1862, this is Montgomery
Meigs helping this, and William Henry Powell’s
“Battle of Lake Erie.” Both of these are
also still on display. And those two artists received
really expensive commissions. So Bierstadt decides, Well, of
course, I should get one, too.” So there’s wonderful
correspondence. He becomes friends with
congressmen at that time and Senator Rutherford B. Hayes, which we all know
what happens to him. So Bierstadt goes on a
campaign to get commissioned. So it is my theory that,
as part of his campaign, he has Mount Hood
displayed in the Library so to give Congress
the opportunity to see and sample his work. Fortunately, I’ve done
a lot of research. The Portland Museum of Art, by
the way, now has this painting. I was in touch with
the curators. And, so, now I can date
this photograph to 1866, because that is the
time Bierstadt was here and after the painting was done. So an interesting story. And, actually, there’s
some further research to be done on that. So, as we have talked about,
the Library is a destination. It’s a tourist destination. Harper’s Weekly has
several renderings taken from photographs. This one I just love in 1871. This is right before, of course,
the march to declutter happens. I love this. This is undated. But there’s a handwritten
note on the photograph. Thank heavens. It’s adorable. It says, “Charge Desk
Librarian Spofford’s Table.” Sure enough. So Librarian Spofford
apparently, and I’m sure you all have read
accounts or that [inaudible] to, that Librarian Spofford,
if anybody told him, “I need to see a copy of
this book,” he would be able to find it immediately
at his charge desk. Here we have a painting
that then becomes a print. It’s very famous. It was done in 1897. It’s a colored reproduction
that was done in 1839. So we have here Spofford. The man on the left holding
a lamp is, where is he, he’s right here, David
Hutcheson, Assistant Librarian. And then Robert Tharin is
identified, I can’t see my, right here, the bearded man, the
sixth Auditor of the Treasury. So we can see the clutter. This is 1897. So this was done right
before the Thomas Jefferson Building opened. And this could very well be
the very last photograph taken before Librarian Spofford
moves across the street. Note here he is. Here everything is
packed up, ready to go. Nothing is in the
alcoves anymore. So I think this is one sort of last grand photograph
before the Library moves to the Jefferson Building. Now what do you think, who
knows, what happens to one of the greatest architectural
masterpieces in American history– Thomas
Walters’ iron Library? What happened to it? Anybody know? Summarily destroyed. Completely. And this was by design. Congress decided that they
wanted committee rooms. And, so, they completely
demolished the iron Library. And it was all sold for scrap. Not one piece survives to even
document the eleven shades of gold that I talked
about earlier. Not one piece. I found this photograph
and its companions in the Kiplinger
collection, actually, of the D.C. Historical Society. And this is 1801. Very, very sad. So you can see that now. This is before and after. This is the Library
before the demolition, and after the demolition. And then this is the
photograph that I matched things up to identify the south wing. So here we have an
unidentified photograph. But I took the demolition
photograph that I found through the Architect
of the Capitol’s Office, I matched up the windows. So here we have window, which is
different than the north wing. So this could be
the very first time that a photograph is
identified as the south wing. John Cole was very
excited about that. Here we have the
north wing again. Sort of the transition
when it was pristine, the March to Declutter
right before the move, and then the demolition
of the north wing. The only thing that
survived they moved the tile. I took this photograph myself. So if we’re off the Rotunda
of the Capitol today, I took this photograph, if you
go out the center west exit door of the Rotunda, and you look, you will see these
Hall of Columns. Speaker Ryan’s office
is off here. And then, of course,
as I referenced, the Senate leadership
is off here. So, essentially,
Speaker Ryan’s office, I went and had nice chats. Oh, I did want to point out,
too, a little tangential, but the Law Library of the
Library of Congress was housed in the old Supreme Court, in Latrobe’s old
Supreme Court chamber until the 1940s, actually. So you can see here’s
Latrobe ceiling. But everything is
chockfull of books. And, apparently, the
Supreme Court was very intent on the Library staying
in the Capitol. So moving right along. Here we have our magnificent
Jefferson Building. And, as you know, I just
thought it’s fun to understand that this is the
[inaudible] façade. And this is the Opera Garnier. And enter, as you all
know, are Casey brothers. So Thomas [inaudible] Lincoln
Casey, I don’t need to describe who he is as I have
another presentation, but I do want to point out. This is very important. Some of you all may
or may not know. Thomas Lincoln Casey
comes from a very, very renowned artistic family, not only himself,
but also his wife. His wife’s father was
Robert Weir, who, indeed, painted the “Embarkation of
the Pilgrims” that you see in the Capitol Rotunda. Edward Pearce Casey, of course,
his son, as you all know, decorate the Thomas
Jefferson Building. So I found an essay in
our beautiful Library of Congress coffee table
book called “The Decorators.” And I quote. “The Library of Congress, Thomas
Casey’s wife was the daughter of Robert, [inaudible] a
well-known 19th-century painter and professor of drawing at West
Point between 1834 and 1876, where he instructed artist
James Whistler, many generals of the Civil War, by the way,
including Ulysses S. Grant, who was a very, very fine sketch
artist and drawer himself. This is Robert Weir’s
most famous work. “General Casey undoubtedly
paced the Capitol corridors, especially those of the Senate
wing with its walls and ceilings of mural decoration by
Constantino Brumidi. In fact, the aged artist,
Brumidi, was still at work on the Rotunda frieze in the
Capitol that bears his name when General Casey
arrived in Washington. The General must have known
that it was Montgomery Meigs who first commissioned Brumidi.” So it’s really important to understand there’s
connections here. Montgomery Meigs is
supervising the construction of the extensions to the
Capitol and the Capitol dome. They’re designed
by Thomas Walter. Montgomery makes the decision
to decorate the Capitol very, very highly with the work of
Constantino Brumidi with lots of Greek and Roman architecture. It’s like we have
Montgomery Meigs with Brumidi in the same way that
Thomas Jefferson partnered with Latrobe. It’s a very similar
relationship. Meigs new Thomas Casey. They served together. They went to West Point. Okay. So the connections, you have the Thomas Jefferson
Building built out and decorated by the Casey family
in the tradition of high decoration
of the Capitol. Unlike what Thomas
Walter wanted. As you saw, he was not about
lots and lots of decoration. So here Thomas Casey, as you
all may or may not remember, he supervised the construction of the old Executive
Office Building, the Eisenhower Executive
Office Building. Here we have the State
Department Library, the law Library and
the Indian Treaty Room. General Casey was
undoubtedly familiar with Walters’ iron Library. He was in charge
of this building. And he was there for 11 years. So maybe it’s a romantic
assumption on my part, but I would like to think
that Casey was influenced by the iron Library in
building out these spaces. Of course, Casey was not
the original architect. That was Alfred Mullet of
the old Executive Office. It’s the Eisenhower. I grew up with it as the
old Executive Office. The Eisenhower Executive
Office Building. But I’d like to think that in
building it out, he is using, because all of this
material is iron, all three of these spaces
are completely iron. So let’s look at some
other similarities. Constantino Brumidi was
told by Montgomery Meigs that he wanted the halls
of the Capitol to be based on the Loggia of the
Vatican decorated by Raphael. So here we have the
Loggia of the Vatican. Here we have the very
famous Brumidi corridors of the Capitol. And then, of course, here’s
our northwest corridor in the Library of Congress. And then here we
have Justice again. Here is our clear-eyed view of Justice looking
towards her Genius and the copy of the
Constitution. And here we have Elihu Vedder’s
Justice, although in here it’s “Government,” in Elihu Vedder’s
fantastic [inaudible] series “Good Government, Bad
Government,” that we refer to. So here’s Justice clear-eyed in
that same tradition established by Franzoni all those years ago. Next we have Clio,
our “Car of History.” My favorite. Of course, she’s all about
the importance of learning and history through time,
and how the flight of time and the importance of
books and education, all of those things in time. Here we have our own “History”
done by Daniel Chester French, and a very similarly
themed “Fight of Time” by Paul Flanagan,
the Flanagan clock. So Clio, in one magnificent
piece of sculpture, in our Thomas Jefferson
Building, she has two with those
very similar themes. And next we have
the Americanization of design elements. Here I’ve gone through
Latrobe’s Americanization of classic architecture, in particular the
the Corn Cob Capitals and the tobacco water
leaves, et cetera. And, of course, our Putti. This is taking a very classical
icon and Americanizing it with the jobs that are popular
in the late 19th century. And, of course, Minerva. Here we have Latrobe’s Minerva. Here we have Brumidi’s
“Apotheosis” in the Apotheosis of Washington. Here we have Minerva
instructing many of the founders of our country. Nobody did it better
than Brumidi in taking classical Roman and
Greek themes, and putting them with American counterparts
and merging the two. Absolute genius. And then here we
have our Minerva. And, of course, our
Minerva she’s won the war against ignorance. So she’s helmetless. And, by the way, this is
one of the only portrayals of Minerva I have found
where her helmet is off. So this is really a kind
of innovation I think that Vedder introduced. But she’s all ready with
that helmet just in case that darkness of ignorance
is going to descend again. And then, of course, we
have Brumidi’s Neptune in the Apotheosis of Washington,
and our Neptune fountain out front, which,
in my own opinion, is one of the most magnificent
pieces of sculpture in the city, and people don’t really
refer to it particularly. But I never tire, I’m
sure you all don’t either, of just gazing at it. It’s amazing. So next things are changing. So Thomas Crawford did the
pediment called, excuse me, “The Progress of Civilization.” And this is the north Senate
pediment on the Capitol. So it’s the northeast pediment. You see it when you walk into
the Thomas Jefferson Building. In Crawford’s depiction
“Native Americans” the progress of civilization really
is the conquering of Native American peoples. And I won’t go into all of
the figures that do that. But that’s the point. Things change in the
Thomas Jefferson Building. So, of course, Philip Martiny’s
Native Americans are portrayed very differently. And Olin Levi Warner’s
“Tradition” with Chief Joseph at the feet of oral tradition. So Capitol art is evolving over into the Thomas
Jefferson Building, and really creating
different messages. Next, since this is the entire
pediment, Thomas Crawford’s “Progress of Civilization” as
the northeast pediment, and, basically, it is about
the conquering of peoples. Here we have, of course, you know Edwin Blashfield’s
vision is very, very different. But the titles of the two pieces
really do invite comparison. “Progress of Civilization,”
“Evolution of Civilization.” So I think it’s very clear
that a statement is being made by the decorators of the
Thomas Jefferson Building that they are going in a
very different direction. Okay. And then, of course,
you all may or may not know, the Statue of Freedom
on the roof of the Capitol was originally
designed with a Liberty Cap. This is, of course, an ancient
Roman symbol of manumission, of freeing slaves essentially. But Jefferson Davis
nixed that design. He said, “Absolutely not. Period. End of story.” So Crawford was forced
to redesign the headdress that exists today on
the Statue of Freedom. Now as Ford Peatross
in our docent training, is Ford going to be doing? Yes. Oh, okay. At least in our docent training, he pointed out the
Liberty Cap is in the Thomas Jefferson
Building in a place of honor. And I’m quoting, from memory,
but I’m quoting him saying, “If we think that
that’s a coincidence, or if there’s no connection. No, no, no, no, no,”
Again, the decorators of the Jefferson Building are
making statements that are very, very different than what
we found at the Capitol. And, interestingly, who is in
charge of decorating the space of the iron Library,
those committee rooms and what is now Paul
Ryan’s office, et cetera, but our own Elmer Garnsey. We all know Elmer Garnsey. Here is his magnificent
“NE Pavilion” painting. Of course, Elmer Garnsey,
just to refresh your memory, was tasked with installing
the art here in the Jefferson Building,
or across the street. So I went over to Paul
Ryan’s suite of offices, and the first thing the staffer
pointed out to me, this we used to be the House District
Committee room, the first thing he pointed out
was, “Here’s the Liberty Cap. Do you know about
the Liberty Cap? Yeah. It was nixed
by Jefferson Davis, but here it is back
again in the Capitol.” And, of course, this is
post-Thomas Jefferson Building. So here we have Elmer
Garnsey, who is clearly annoyed about what happened
with the Liberty Cap, his icon at the Capitol,
it’s in a place of honor in the Jefferson
Building, and, good heavens, he’s going to bring
it back to the Capitol after the iron Library
is demolished. I think this is fun. The “Pompeiian Maidens.” So Montgomery Meigs
instructs Constantino Brumidi to model Pompeiian maidens
on the House of the Vetti in the Ixion Room in Rome,
or in Italy I should say. So Brumidi takes it and adapts
it for the Naval Committee. All of a sudden the Pompeian
maiden is floating in the water, because it’s the
Naval Committee Room. So he adapts that. Here is George Willoughby
Maynard, our “Pompeiian Maiden” in the Jefferson Building. And then sure enough George
Willoughby Maynard goes back across the street, and
puts “Pompeiian Maidens,” and I took this right outside
of Paul Ryan’s offices. So we have four incarnations
of our maidens. The only reason I put this in is finally these wood
doors were done in 1908, and Thomas Casey, it’s
all different icons and different subjects
that it’s celebrating, but Thomas Casey is
included in these doors. These were never installed
formally in the Capitol. But I think it’s interesting
that Casey has made it, and a nice tribute to
his engineering prowess. I’m finishing with Kenyon
Cox and his son Allyn Cox. Oh, before that. I’m sorry. Paul Wayland Bartlett. Excuse me. Paul Wayland Bartlett, as
you all know, “Michelangelo” and “Christopher Columbus”
some view that he goes across the street to the
Capitol to do the “Apotheosis of Democracy” in 1911 to 1914. Highly recommend you take
a very good look at it. This is considered to be Paul
Wayland Bartlett’s masterpiece. Many, many, many
of the sculptors, or several I should say, several
of the sculptors that you find who had done work in
the Jefferson Building, you will find their
work also represented in the Statuary Hall collection, and also in art throughout
the Capitol. And, lastly, now we get
to Kenyon and Alan Cox. You all, I hope, are
familiar, of course, with Kenyon Cox’s
“Science” and “Art.” And then Cox had one
of the finest muralists of his day his son, Allyn Cox,
painted the Cox corridors, which are on the House side. In other words, they’re
the counterparts to the Brumidi corridors
on the Senate side. And they’re fantastic. They’re all different
scenes of American history. And I found it very touching
and wonderful that, indeed, he pays homage to Walter’s iron
Library in the Cox corridors. Remember Allyn Cox did this
in the 1970s, in the 1970s. The Cox corridors are
relatively recent. Okay. So that’s finishes up. I’m sure you thought
this would never end. So just to summarize. The Thomas Jefferson Building
has a magnificent historic context starting with
Benjamin Latrobe’s 1808 vision of what this Library could
be as a symbol of patriotism, as a symbol of greatness, the symbol of the
importance of learning. Charles Bulfinch’s, I
would say underrated, Library has that same vision, and also ties it to
ancient cultures. And then, of course, Thomas Walters’ magnificent
iron Library. Incredibly functional, an absolute architectural
masterpiece, as is our magnificent
Thomas Jefferson Building. So that concludes
my presentation. And I can take questions I hope. Thank you. I apologize. I’m sure I’m over the hour. But, anyway, questions? Yes?>>Janice, in the Walter
design of the Library–>>Janice McKelvey: Yes, sir?>>Were the north and
south wings connected to the west front, or were
they actually separate rooms? In other words, if
I were alive then, and were on the second
floor level in the [inaudible] of books–>>Janice McKelvey: Right.>>And I wanted to find, I
was say in the north wing–>>Janice McKelvey: Right.>>And I discovered that
there was a volume I needed in the west front–>>Janice McKelvey:
Yes, there were.>>So you could just
walk [inaudible]–>>Janice McKelvey: Yes. But not, I don’t believe, the
fourth, because the fourth floor of those north and
south wings was not in Walter’s original plan. So if you were up on that
fourth floor, you would have to go downstairs, and then– [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yeah.>>Thank you.>>Janice McKelvey: Yes. Other questions? Yes, sir? [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Absolutely. And Tom Hoban, who is
one of my colleagues, does a wonderful presentation on the construction
of the building. And also, according to Tom,
who’s done extensive research on this, Edward Pearce
Casey, the interior of our magnificent
Jefferson Building is Edward Pearce Casey’s. And what I want to do more
research on myself, personally, is to look at how Casey is
going back to Brumidi, or not, because the decision was made
to highly decorate the Capitol, and to highly decorate
the Jefferson Building. They are all together. They know each other’s work. So that’s my own personal,
more scholarship needed. Other question? Yes? [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] And is a tourist destination. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. It is my understanding
that is true. I’ve spoken with
John Cole about this. But, yes. Yeah. That’s the best answer I know. And the Bulfinch Library I
know that it was accessible. To what extent that
was open to the public. But, again, there wasn’t
very much here, particularly in the Bulfinch years. So that is a space that was a
destination in and of itself, because it’s one of the only
in Washington at the time. I mean so much of the
construction happened. Yes? Again. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] Yes. [ Inaudible Speaker ] No. [ Inaudible Speaker ] No, they don’t. And that’s not their
fault, because most tours of the Capitol, who’s
been on one lately? Okay. Most tours of the Capitol
only include three spaces– the Crypt, the Rotunda
and Statuary Hall. And, so, it’s not in
their purview to go to where the Library was. I have heard some of
them say things like, and this is a few years ago, I’ve heard them make
reference saying that Thomas Jefferson
gave his Library to start the Library
of Congress. You may have heard that, too. They’re still a little
murky, I think, some of those guides
on those details. But, no, their reference
is very, very minimal. But, again, that’s
not their fault. That’s just because
they’re not in those spaces. The interns I know they
have more accessibility to the building. But I don’t believe
they mention it either. Yeah. Yes? [ Inaudible Speaker ] I have it in my notes. I can’t remember exactly. But it was well over
40,000 books. That’s a good question. I know it’s in here somewhere. But, yes. I mean huge, huge. Other questions? Okay. Thank you so much. Enjoy your lunch. [ Applause ]>>This has been a presentation
of the Library of Congress. Visit us at loc.gov.

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