How a wound heals itself – Sarthak Sinha

How a wound heals itself – Sarthak Sinha

The largest organ in your body
isn’t your liver or your brain. It’s your skin, with a surface area
of about 20 square feet in adults. Though different areas of the skin
have different characteristics, much of this surface performs
similar functions, such as sweating, feeling heat and cold,
and growing hair. But after a deep cut or wound, the newly healed skin will look different
from the surrounding area, and may not fully regain all
its abilities for a while, or at all. To understand why this happens, we need to
look at the structure of the human skin. The top layer, called the epidermis, consists mostly of hardened cells,
called keratinocytes, and provides protection. Since its outer layer is constantly being
shed and renewed, it’s pretty easy to repair. But sometimes a wound penetrates
into the dermis, which contains blood vessels
and the various glands and nerve endings that enable the skin’s many functions. And when that happens, it triggers the
four overlapping stages of the regenerative process. The first stage, hemostasis, is the skin’s
response to two immediate threats: that you’re now losing blood and that the physical barrier of
the epidermis has been compromised. As the blood vessels tighten to minimize
the bleeding, in a process known as
vasoconstriction, both threats are averted by forming
a blood clot. A special protein known as fibrin forms
cross-links on the top of the skin, preventing blood from flowing out
and bacteria or pathogens from getting in. After about three hours of this,
the skin begins to turn red, signaling the next stage, inflammation. With bleeding under control
and the barrier secured, the body sends special cells to fight any
pathogens that may have gotten through. Among the most important of these
are white blood cells, known as macrophages, which devour bacteria and damage tissue
through a process known as phagocytosis, in addition to producing growth factors
to spur healing. And because these tiny soldiers
need to travel through the blood to
get to the wound site, the previously constricted
blood vessels now expand in a process called vasodilation. About two to three days after the wound, the proliferative stage occurs, when
fibroblast cells begin to enter the wound. In the process of collagen deposition, they produce a fibrous protein
called collagen in the wound site, forming connective skin tissue
to replace the fibrin from before. As epidermal cells divide to reform
the outer layer of skin, the dermis contracts to close the wound. Finally, in the fourth stage
of remodeling, the wound matures as the newly deposited
collagen is rearranged and converted into specific types. Through this process,
which can take over a year, the tensile strength of the new skin
is improved, and blood vessels and other connections
are strengthened. With time, the new tissue
can reach from 50-80% of some of its original healthy function, depending on the severity of the initial
wound and on the function itself. But because the skin
does not fully recover, scarring continues to be a major clinical
issue for doctors around the world. And even though researchers have made
significant strides in understanding the healing process, many fundamental mysteries
remain unresolved. For instance, do fibroblast cells arrive
from the blood vessels or from skin tissue adjacent to the wound? And why do some other mammals,
such as deer, heal their wounds much more efficiently
and completely than humans? By finding the answers to these questions
and others, we may one day be able to heal ourselves
so well that scars will be just a memory.

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  1. Many thanks, been searching for "how to treat impotence naturally" for a while now, and I think this has helped. You ever tried – Narnlivia Stiff Manhood – (do a google search ) ? Ive heard some unbelievable things about it and my co-worker got cool success with it.

  2. The cells are your best friends they love you so much and they are so loyal to you that they would give their life to save yours!

  3. So if I get a d*ck cut it will grow from the growth stuff that the white blood cells release to make it grow new skin faster?

  4. My index finger skin suddenly always peeling itself
    I thought its normal, but it 3 months already, my index finger skin becomes dry, redder than other finger and thin.
    It only happen to my right hand
    I don't think I use any harsh chemicals
    I have no idea what's the cause

    I can't open my phonelock with my fingerprint anymore lol

  5. i hav e a scar from an accident i had with an axe about 8-9 months ago and the scar is srill here to this dayunlesss y oh r watchin in twenty nineteen

  6. hello
    kindly may I use part of this animated video in my presentation about wound healing?

  7. Body: Creates piece of skin to cover the wound until it heals up, made up of millions of cells and made to stop infections from coming in

    8 year old kids: Scratch scratch

  8. Iโ€™m watching this because i fell on the stairs and scraped my knee really badly lmao. *laughs and cries at the same time*

  9. ุฌุฒุงูƒู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฎูŠุฑ ุงู„ุฏู†ูŠุง ูˆุงู„ุงุฎุฑู‡ ู„ูƒู„ ุงู„ู…ุชุฑุฌู…ูŠู†

  10. My blood cells: Good work guys look how well the job was done!

    Me: I didn't see that there Scratches off

    My blood cells: Did you have to do that?!?
    The relationship between me and my blood…

  11. I just wrecked off my bike like awfully and ems had to come to the scene it was so bad but this is helping me gain a little confidence in my healing. ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘

  12. i got a wound bout 3 months ago right before summer i fell like hmmmmmmmmmmmmm was it 3.2 ft and its ben 3 montths there stilll doesnt fit with other skin parts of my body

  13. a year ago i had to get stitches on my arm becuase i fell in my dogs cage and you could see the tissue and threres still a scar

  14. Maybe deer heal better because they dont put ice on their wounds which decreases blood flow and healing….. hmmm

  15. It's so fascinating… I wish my teacher was interesting as you guys.. I wish I actually became a doctor… But sometimes your in the wrong place at the wrong time ๐Ÿ˜ท๐Ÿ˜‘๐Ÿ˜‘๐Ÿ˜”

  16. My recreation choices infrequently damage skin. In 2013 I committed myself
    to ordering bandaging product by case amounts. Following surgery and on-
    going fresh damage. Mainly from off-road motorcycling and home repairs.
    Presently have lesions from what bikers refer to as 'gravel rash'. I have dozens
    of ten-count boxes containing antimicrobial adhesive bandages to heal with.
    Made in Mansfield, MA 02048. I'm intelligent enough to prefer USA-made help.

  17. Min. after: the wound fills
    3hours after it gets red and its healing
    2-3 days after it starts to heal to previus state: full skin

  18. 7 months ago in march, like two weeks till it was my birthday..
    one morning i woke up to eat some pizza rolls, and i was playing fortnite at the time (I no longer play it)
    my family had got chinese food that night, but i went to sleep early and didn't get a chance to eat them, until the next morning, i was hungry, so i went to get them out of the microwave, and then went back into my room to contiune my game.
    so, as i was eating the pizza rolls, i missed my bite, and bit the tip of my tounge, (was eating fast) it started to bleed as i looked in the mirror at my tounge, i panicked, and i said ow, and my mom heard me, she was like "You alright? if i can remember correctly, so i told her that i had bit my tounge eating the pizza rolls, so she gave me some tissue to stop the bleeding, it stopped, thank god, and then she had told me to sit my tounge in a cup of ice water, to prevent swelling and infection (gargled salt water)
    from that moment, i was nearly fainting, getting nauseous, because i couldn't stand what just happened, and i HATE the sight of blood, so that's what really drove me crazy, and i was constantly worried about my tounge after the incident, 4 months later.
    i had told people about it just to gain some closure, and get rid of my anxiety from that incident, but that will only make it worse by talking to random strangers about it, is what they had told me, but i had to let my problems be heard, or else i'd get sick.
    i have had flashbacks after that incident happened, i guess they call it trauma? and the doctors said that i had an anxiety attack from biting my tounge and seeing the blood, the bite was nothing bad though, in case y'all were wondering..i was fine.
    but is it normal to feel dryness on the tounge or whatever? I have been using biotene (Dry mouth spray)
    because i can't produce saliva like i used to, after that incident, or was it due to stressing over what happened?
    i have also been told that the tounge is the fastest healing part of the body, and it would heal within time.

  19. 2:34 How are new skin cells made or where do new skin cells come from? Based on the animation, it can be concluded that they come from nowhere.


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