Linux Tutorial for Beginners: Introduction to Linux Operating System

Linux Tutorial for Beginners: Introduction to Linux Operating System

Welcome to the tutorials on Linux. [this] is first of the 18 part video series Helping you become a linux pro. So let’s get started. [so] [what] is an operating system? Every time you switch on your computer you see a screen where you can perform different Activities like write browse the internet or watch a video What is it that makes a computer hardware work like that? How does the processor on your computer know that you are asking it to run an MP3 file? Well, it is the operating system or the Kernel which does this work a Kernel is the program at the heart of any operating system that takes care of fundamental stuff like letting hardware communicate with software So to work on your [computer] you need an operating system in fact. We are using one as you read this on your computer now You may have used popular operating systems like windows Apple os x but here we will learn what linux is and what benefits it offers over other os choices So what is linux and who created it? Linux is an operating system or a kernel which Germinated as an idea in the mind of young and bright [cleanest] or valves and [he] was a computer science student Used to work on the Unix operating system And thought that it needed Improvements however When his suggestions were rejected by the designers of Unix he thought of launching an os which will be receptive to the changes modifications Suggested by its users Selina’s divides the colonel named Linux in 1991 though he would need programs like file manager document editors [Audio-video] programs to run on it Something as you have a cone, but no ice cream on the [top] as time passed by he collaborated with other programmers in places like mit and applications for Linux started to appear So around 1991 a working linux operating system with some applications was officially launched And this was the start of one of the most left and open source os options available today the earlier versions of Linux were not so user-friendly as they were in use by computer programmers and Leanest or [valves] never had it in mind to commercialize his product [it] is definitely curved Linux is popularity as other commercially oriented operating system windows got famous Nonetheless the open Source aspect of the Linux operating system made it more robust But now linux has got its new attention The main Advantage of Linux was that programmers were able [to] use the Linux Kernel in order to design their [own] custom operating systems This has now made linux one of the most popular and widely used Kernel and it is the Backbone of popular operating systems like Debian ubuntu and Fedora the list doesn’t end here as there are thousands of operating systems based on Linux which offer a variety of functions to [the] users, so [what] are the benefits of using Linux? Linux now enjoys popularity at its prime, and it’s famous among programmers as well as regular computer users around the world Its main benefit is that it offers a free operating system? You do not have to shell hundreds of dollars to get the operating system like windows But the benefits are being [open-source] anyone with programming knowledge can modify it The Linux operating systems now offer millions of programs and applications to choose from most of them free Once you have linux installed you no longer need an anti-virus Linux is a highly secure system more so there is a global development community constantly looking at ways to enhance its Security with each upgrade the operating system becomes more secure and robust linux is the operating [system] of choice for server? environments user stability and reliability [mega] companies like Amazon Facebook and Google use linux for their servers a linux based server could run non-stop Without a reboot for years on end So is it for you? users who are new to Linux usually shun it by falsely considering it as a difficult and technical operating system to operate But to state the truth in the last few years the next operating systems have become a lot more [user-friendly] Than their counterparts [bank] [windows] so trying them is the best way to know whether linux suits you or not [I’m] asked to learn Unix and why Linux Unix is the mother of the operating systems which laid out the foundation to Linux? Unix is designed mainly for mainframes and used in enterprises and Universities while Linux is fast becoming a household name for computer users Developers and server environment you may have to pay for a Unix kernel while in Linux it is free But the commands used on both the operating systems are usually the same there is not much difference between Unix and Linux Though they might seem different at core They are essentially the same since linux is a clone of Unix so learning [1] is same as [learning] another This was a short introduction to Linux. Thank you for watching I will [see] you the next tutorial Welcome to the video tutorial on selecting a linux distribution and types of installation now that we know what clinic says it is time We learn how we should install it on the computer and choose which distribution. We should use Let’s start by understanding, what a linux distribution is Well now as you know that your next is an open source free to use kernel. It is used by programmers organizations profit and nonprofit companies around the world in order to create operating systems to suit their individual requirements these versions types the kinds of Linux operating systems are all distributions or in the stores, so [how] many distributions are out there there are hundreds of Unix operating systems or distributions available these days? Many of them are designed with a specific purpose in mind for example To run a web server or to run network switches like routers or Modems the latest example of one of the most popular smartphone based [Unix] distribution is Android so let us learn about some popular Linux distros Starting with arch Linux this Linux Distro is popular amongst developers [it] is an independently developed system. It is designed for users who go for a do with [yourself’] approach The next is the Center Force it is one of the most used Linux distribution For enterprises and web servers it is a free enterprise class operating system And is based heavily on Red Hat Enterprise Distro The next is gen [2] it is [a] source based [distribution] which means you need to configure the code on your system before you can install it it is not for Linux beginners But it sure is fun for experienced users Linux mint, it is one of the most popular desktop distributions available out there It launched in 2006 and is now considered with a fourth most used operating system in the computing world Next is ubuntu This is the third most popular desktop operating system after Microsoft windows and Apple mac os it is based on Debian Linux distribution and it is known for its desktop and Violent so which one is the best linux distribution? Well each linux distribution is built for a [specific] purpose to meet the demands of its target users Most of the distributions are available for free at their respective websites You might want to try them one by one till you get to know which distribution you [like] the most each one of them offers its unique design Applications and secure it We will be using ubuntu for our learning purpose as it’s easy for a beginner to understand Now let us look at the various methods. We can use to install Linux The first type of installation is from the USB stick This is one of the easiest methods of installing ubuntu or any other linux distribution on your computer So let’s start with the uSB stick Installation for this you are going to need the ubuntu iso, or os files? You can download them by visiting forward slash download [or] slash than stop let’s visit this page as You can see here there are two versions of ubuntu available free for download Let us go ahead and download it will do 1210 The second software that you are going to need is a program which will install the ubuntu iso files on the uSB stick So for this you can install the universal usB installer Available for free a pendrive linux comm so let [us] go ahead and download it So once you have the [given] to iso files and the universal usB installer Downloaded on your computer It’s time to run the universal usB installer The first step is about selecting a linux Distro The drop-down menu here shows the list of different distributions and their versions We will choose ubuntu 1210 next you need to click on browse and Here we have that would do 12 10 iso files on the desktop So go ahead and click on it Now you need to choose the uSb flash drive. [so] let us go ahead and click on this drop down menu here It shows that we have a uSb stake mounted on the drive. I so let’s select it Now if you want to format the usb flash drive before it installs ubuntu you can click on Format the drive then click [on] create You would get a pop-up message informing you that the universal usB installer Will work on the following actions click on yes? Then the universal usB installer program will start moving the ubuntu iso files to the uSB stick Once done you have the uSB stick ready with ubuntu to install it on your system So let us go ahead and click on close [now] your uSB [stick] is an installation media with the window on it Now you can boot your computer Through this uSB stick and you will be able to run [move] [into] without installation The second method of installation is by Live CD This is another effective [way] of installing linux on your system for this you again need to visit forward slash download forward slash desktop in order to download the iso files Once you are done with the download and you have open to installation files on your computer Burn them to a CD and then you need to boot your computer Through the optical drive and follow the instructions as they come the next and the most popular method to install a linux operating system is virtual installation it offers you the Freedom of running Linux on an existing operating system already installed on your computer This means if you have windows or mac os running then you can just run linux with a click of a button Virtual Machine Software like Oracle VM Can install ubuntu in easy steps let us look at them again? You first need to download the ubuntu iso files on your computer Then you need to download the installation files for oracle VM virtualbox [as] we are running on windows right now. We will go ahead and download these files So let us download and install oracle VM on the computer Once done, you need to click on the virtual box icon on your desktop, and this is the screen that will open then you need to configure the virtual operating system by clicking on new Which will create a new virtual machine? You can have multiple os installations in your virtual machine at the same time then click on next Type in a name for your virtual machine and then choose the operating system and the version that you would like to install Click next and Define the memory size for the virtual machine Right now the memory allocated for the virtual machine is 512 and B You can always increase the base memory size for the virtual machine then click on next Create a new hard disk this does not create a new drive like c. D or [e] in your machine Instead it creates a vDI. Which is a virtual disk image This virtual disk will contain your os installation Click on next and you will find that there are many options to create a virtual disk choose vDI. Which is virtualbox disk image select between dynamically allocated or fixed size virtual disk storage a Dynamically allocated [virtual] disk file with only you space on your physical hard disk which is used by your VM installation While fixed size will use the entire allocated space in your physical hard drive click on next Define the location for virtual this file on your physical hard drive And the file size the recommended file size is 10 GB click on next you are then shown a summary screen click on create and this is the virtual machine that we created so [let’s] go ahead and power the virtual machine This will boot forward to on virtualbox now let’s go ahead and install ubuntu If you want to download updates while installing you can check this thick box let’s click on continue So if you want to go ahead And install [ubuntu] directly you can choose this option here It will not affect the hard drive instead with only [arrays] the virtual disk that you have created Otherwise if you want to work on the partitions, you can choose something else Let’s go ahead with [arrays’] disk and install ubuntu right now and click on continue We can type in the city you live in here, and then you need to click on continue Then choose the language that you would want to work [with] and click on Continue now. This is an important step and it will define your rights on the linux system so put in your name here and Then choose a computer name you will leave it like this Then you can put in a username of your choice and after that put in a password Then you can choose any of these two options here and click on continue Now this would install ubuntu on your system Those who want to test the distribution before installing it on a computer and replacing the existing operating system would be surprised to know that you can easily run it from the uSB [stick] or a Cd in the trial mode as you can see here. We have a try ubuntu option available [if] we go with it Ubuntu would start in the trial mode and you can easily check out the interface This way you can learn whether you like the [distribution] or not and can either install or move on to another one You can even install linux [side-by-side] with Windows or any other os which is called dual booting let us quickly summarize what we [learned] today an Operating system based on the Linux Kernel is called the distribution or Distro. There are hundreds of distributions available Some of which are designed to accomplish a sole purpose like running servers act as network switches Etc Naming the best linux distribution is difficult as they are made for different needs Linux can be installed in your system while [the] below mentioned methods The first one is the USB stick the second one is the live CD and the third one is virtual installation Thank you for watching I will see you in the next tutorial Welcome to the video tutorial on the big switch to Linux now [that] you have installed linux. It is time to make the big switch from your windows or the Mac operating system [Mac] always uses a Unix call your switch from Mac os to Linux will be relatively smooth It’s the windows users who will need some adjusting in This tutorial we will introduce the linux operating system and compare it with windows Starting with file system in Microsoft Windows files are stored in Folders under different data drives like Cd. E Button Linux files are ordered in a tree structure starting with the root directory This root directory can be considered as [the] start of the file system, and it further branches out various other sub directories the root is denoted with the forward slash a General Tree file system on your linux system may look like this Moving on to the types of files in Linux and Unix everything is a file Directories are files files are files and the devices like printer mouse keyboard ETC are all files the first type [of] files are general files also called ordinary files they can contain image video program or simply text it can be a sky or a binary Format These are the most commonly used files by Linux users next are the directory files These files are a warehouse for other file types We can have a directory file with them a directory you can take them as folders found in windows operating system here the difference between Linux and windows becomes Significant in Windows system and program files are usually saved in the drive [sea] But in linux you would find the system and program files and different directories under the file System same is the case with CD-Rom while we see it as a drive in windows It is a directory named as CD-Rom and Linux Removable Media files are also shown as a drive in windows Whereas in Linux, they are a directory Common programs and [windows] are stored in the program files and linux you would find them under the bin directory The last type is the device files in Microsoft Windows devices like printers CD-Rom and hard drives are represented as drive letters like the e g h and Linux they are represented as files for example if the first sata drive had three primary partitions They will be named as the [file] systems that you can see on the screen It is important to note here that all the device files reside in the [def] directory all Of these file types including the devices have permissions which allow a user to read Edit or execute them This is a powerful Linux or Unix feature access Restrictions can be applied [for] different kinds of [users] by changing permissions let us discuss user accounts and Linux the first type is a regular user a regular user account is created for you when you install ubuntu on your system, or Your files and folders are stored in home guru 99 Which is your home directory as a regular user you do not have access to directories of other users other Than regular user another user account called runed is created at the time of installation The root account can access the structured files install software and has [administrator] It is also called the super user Whenever you want to perform any administrative tasks on Linux. You need to log in as a root user The third type is the service user Linux is widely used as a server operating system Services such as apache Squared have their own individual service accounts Having services accounts increases security of your computer it is important to note here that You will not see service accounts in a bin to desktop version, but only in the open to server edition Regular accounts are also called standard accounts in windows desktop Let Us move on to file name convention In windows you cannot have two files with the same name in the same folder With the second file with the same name is created you would get an error While in Linux you can have two files with the same name in the same directory provided they use different cases for [every] user in Linux a directory is created under the home directory Now consider a regular user [through] [nine] [nine] He can store his personal files and directories in the directory home below nine nine But he cannot save files outside his user directory and does not have access to directories of other users as well The concept is similar to the user’s folder found in windows for every user in Linux A Directory is created as home the user name when you put the linux operating system [a] user directory home Guru nine Nine is the default working directory hence the directory home rule [ninety] [nine] is also called the home directory Which is a misnomer? The working directory can be changed using some commands which we will learn later. Let’s summarize Unix or Linux uses a hierarchical file system. There are no drives and Linux unlike windows [files] like hard drives CD-rom printers are also considered files, Unix or Linux There are three types of user counts the first one being regular? Second one root and the third one is service account root user is the super user and has all the administrative Privileges when x file naming convention is case-sensitive Thus sample and sample are two different files in Linux or Unix operating System for every user home user [named] directory is created. Which is called his home directory Thank you for watching this tutorial. [I] hope to see you in the next ones Welcome to the video tutorial on terminal [Vs.]. File manager Have [you] wondered what is the most frequent [tasks] let you perform on your computer is it playing games? Listening to Music or browsing the internet This may be surprising [to] some but the most frequent tasks performed by an average user on a computer is browsing creating moving and deleting files So what are the ways to manage files efficiently there are two main ways? The first one is the Cli or command-line interface like the terminal in a bunton The second one is the graphical user interface or Gui Which is like the file manager on any operating system Most of the beginners as [well] as the experience to users prefer to use the Gui but Cli has its own Advantages which we will discuss in this tutorial So why learn the command-line interface? First the command-line interface is highly flexible and offers options which are not available in the Gui mode Second some configurations in Gui are up to four screens deep while in the CLi It’s just a single command for example Creating a new account can take forward different steps through the graphical user Interface Whereas the same can be done with a single terminal command third If you are thinking of moving hundreds of files it can take hours using the Gui mode Whereas using regular expressions on Cli you can do the same within seconds Forth Cui loads fast and does not consume ram compared to Gui so it does not affect system performance at all This is important [in] crunch situations when a server is down But Gui has its importance to and especially useful while viewing performance graphs editing images and videos Creating sketches and trying out other graphic intensive tasks the look Feel an Operation of Gui based file manager is similar across major operating systems like windows Mac operating system and Linux It’s the command-line interface which people find challenging to use and it will be the focus of our Tutorials So starting with how to launch the command-line interface on the ubuntu operating system You can try the same with the following two methods first click on – and type terminal Then you would be able to see a thumbnail with Seis terminal go ahead and click on it This way the terminal window would pop open Or you can simply press the CTRL alt? And t keys on [benet] ssin to launch the same window Once you have launched the Cli you would find some information already populated on the screen Let us learn what it is about The first part of this line is the name of the user which can be Bob Tom ubuntu Home or Guru 99 The second part is the computer name or the host name the host name helps identify a computer over the network in a server environment host name becomes important [the] Colon is a simple separator The teal sign shows that the user is [working] in the home directory If you change the directory the sign will vanish Later we will learn how [to] move between different directories, and you would see that the sign would not display the Dollar Sign Suggests that you are working as a regular user in Linux while working as a root or the master user The hash sign is displayed now in order to work on your files You need to know which directory you are in on the terminal this brings us to what as a present working directory The directory that you are currently browsing is called the present working directory We log on to the home [directory] by default when you boot your computer otherwise you can use the Pwd command For knowing which directory you are working on let’s try the same on terminal here by using the PWd command We got to know that we are in the home guru nine-nine Directory which also happens to be the home directory for this computer Pwd stands for print working directory Moving on to changing directories. You can do so by [using] a CD Well it is not the actual CD, but the command Let us look at how it works Here by using the CD. Command you would move from the home directory to the tMP directory Then again using the same command we would move on to the bin directory Trying the same we would then move back to the tMP directory if you want to navigate to the home directory, [then] you need to type CD or Cd space team in case you want to move to the root directory you would have to type CD space forward Slash It should be noted here that the root of filesystem and [Linux] is denoted by a forward slash Which is the same as c. : backward slash [in] windows? The apparent difference is in windows. Where you use a backward slash while in Unix or Linux A forward slash is used Let us try the same on terminal So by using the CD. Space field command we would move to [the] home directory Then if you want to move to the root directory we would use CD. Space forward Slash Do not forget the space between CD and forward slash to avoid error So how do we navigate through multiple directories you can navigate through multiple directories at the same time? by Specifying its complete path So if you want to move to the cPU directory under dev you do not need to break this operation [into] parts Let us look at it on terminal here by using a single command we would move from the home directory to the cPU directory under DEv in Case you want to move up one directory you can easily do [so] by trying CD. Space dot dot By using the CD Space dot dot command we would move from the cPU directory to the [DEV] directory Then again using the same command we would move from DEv directory to the root directory It is important [to] understand What is path in computing and what are its types? Just like a path can make you reach your home a path in computing is the address of a file or folder so the C documents and settings user downloads in Windows and home user downloads Path and Linux would take you to the downloads folder There are two kinds of parts absolute and relative let’s start with the first one Let’s say you have to browse [the] images stored in the pictures directory of the home folder Guru [nine] [nine] The absolute [filepath] of pictures directory is then home go nine nine pictures So to navigate to this directory [you] would have to use the command CD home Guru nine nine pictures and This way you would [read] the pictures directory This is called absolute path as you are specifying the full path to reach the file of the directory Relative path comes in handy when you have to browse another subdirectory Within a given directory it saves you from the effort to type complete parts all the time Suppose you are already in your home directory, and you want to navigate to the pictures directory for this you do not need to type the absolute path with the command as You’re already in the home guru [9:9] directory. You can simply type CD space The name of the directory and you would reach it This way you do not have to specify the complete path to read a specific location within the same directory in the file system So to summarize what we have learned today To manage your files you can use either the Gui or the Cli and linux You can launch the terminal from the dashboard or using the Shortcut Key CTRL alt and t the PWd commands gives the present working directory You can use the CD command to change directories Absolute path is complete address of a file or directory Relative path is relative location of a file or directory with respect to the current directory Relative Path Helps avoid typing complete paths all the time Let us also refresh our memory on the Cli commands learnt in this tutorial Use CD. Space directory named command to navigate to a [particular] directory Use Cd or CD space field command to move to the home directory? Use CD. Space forward Slash command to navigate to the root directory use CD space dot dot Command to move one level up in the directory structure Thank you for watching I will see you in the next tutorial Bienvenido al video tutorial sobre importantes comandos de Linux en El último tutorial, aprendimos la importancia de usar la interfaz de línea de comando continuemos y aprendamos los debe saber los comandos de Linux Para verificar una lista de archivos en su sistema Unix o Linux, puede usar el comando “LS” Muestra los archivos o los directorios en su directorio actual. Vamos a ver esto en la terminal Al escribir el comando “LS”, podemos ver todos los archivos y el directorio en el directorio de inicio Es importante observar aquí, que los directorios se denotan en color azul y los archivos se denotan en blanco Encontrará esquemas de colores similares y diferentes distribuciones de Linux. El comando:LS “muestra los archivos solo en el directorio actual Supongamos que desea verificar la presencia de un archivo MP3 en su carpeta de música que se encuentra bajo el subdirectorio English y el subdirector Hardrock para listar este archivo MP3, puede usar el comando “LS-R” Mostrará todos los archivos y las carpetas no solo en los directorios, sino también en los subdirectorios Aquí, podemos ver todos los directorios, los subdirectorios y los archivos Presentes en ellos para obtener información muy detallada relacionada con los archivos y directorios puede escribir el comando “LS” de guión de espacio “-al” Una vez que escribe el comando Se le presentan muchos detalles en la pantalla. Vamos a aprender cuáles son, la primera columna aquí muestra el tipo de archivo y los permisos de acceso la segunda columna muestra los bloques de memoria ocupados por el archivo o el directorio La tercera columna aquí muestra el propietario o el creador del archivo. la cuarta columna muestra el grupo de usuarios del propietario. la quinta columna muestra el tamaño del archivo y los bytes. La sexta columna aquí muestra la fecha y la hora de la creación del archivo o el directorio. La séptima y la última columna aquí muestra el directorio o el nombre del archivo. Los elementos ocultos en Unix o Linux comienzan con el símbolo de punto al comienzo del archivo o directorio. Cualquier directorio que comience con el período no se verá a menos que usted lo solicite. Para ver los archivos ocultos usa el comando Espacio “LS” Hyphen “-a” al escribir este comando en la terminal, podemos ver todos los archivos ocultos que comienzan con un símbolo de punto. Cuando se trata de crear y visualizar archivos, es hora de traer al gato El comando “cat” el comando “cat” se usa para mostrar archivos de texto. También se puede usar para copiar, combinar y crear nuevos archivos de texto. veamos cómo funciona en la Terminal para crear un nuevo archivo. Debe escribir el siguiente comando en la terminal. Archiva uno aquí siendo el fuego que crearemos. Una vez que haya ingresado al comando, la terminal le solicitará que agregue el contenido. agreguemos el contenido de este archivo. Una vez que haya terminado de agregar el contenido del archivo Debes presionar “CTRL + D” en tu teclado para regresar al comando Indicar Así es como crearemos un nuevo archivo usando el comando “cat” Para ver el mismo archivo, puede escribir en el espacio “cat” el nombre del archivo. Vamos a crear otro archivo usando el mismo método Ahora tenemos dos archivos aquí, “archivo1” y “Archivo2” Permítanos tratar de combinarlos juntos la sintaxis para combinar dos archivos es “gato” espacio “Nombre de archivo 1” Espacio “Nombre de archivo 2” que luego sería enviado a un nuevo archivo. Tan pronto como inserte este comando y presione enter, los archivos estarán Concatenados. pero no ve un resultado. Esto se debe a que el shell bash o el terminal son de tipo silencioso. Nunca le dará un mensaje de confirmación como “ok” o se ha invocado un comando. Solo mostrará un mensaje cuando algo vaya mal o cuando haya ocurrido un error para ver el archivo nuevo archivo combinado, usemos el mismo comando “cat” Tenga en cuenta que solo los archivos de texto pueden mostrarse y combinarse con el comando “cat” pasar a borrar archivos Usaremos el comando “RM” Space filename para eliminar los archivos que no necesitamos. Veámoslo en la terminal Aquí tenemos un archivo con un nombre “prueba” que nos gustaría eliminar el comando “RM” elimina archivos del sistema sin confirmación Para eliminar este archivo, debe escribir “RM” en el espacio “test” Esto eliminaría el archivo y la próxima vez que enumeremos los archivos en el directorio de inicio, no veríamos el archivo de prueba. para mover archivos a una nueva ubicación que necesita usar “” MV “” espacio “nombre de archivo” espacio “Nueva ubicación de archivo” comando Supongamos que queremos mover el archivo de prueba a una nueva ubicación, archivos home Guru99 Para esto tenemos que ejecutar este comando Al ejecutarlo, moverá el archivo. pero ¿por qué dice permiso denegado? Bueno, el comando move necesita permiso de superusuario. Actualmente estamos ejecutando el comando como un usuario estándar y no tenemos los permisos correctos para el directorio de archivos. Por lo tanto, obtenemos el error anterior. para superar el error use el comando “SUDO”. El programa “SUDO” permite a los usuarios habituales ejecutar programas con los privilegios de seguridad de Superusuario o raíz. El comando “SUDO” solicitará la autenticación con contraseña. No necesita saber la contraseña de root para esto y puede ingresar su propia contraseña después de la autenticación, el sistema invocará el comando solicitado. “SUDO” mantiene un registro de cada comando, los administradores del sistema de ejecución pueden rastrear a la persona responsable para cambios indeseables en el sistema. Cabe señalar aquí que de forma predeterminada La contraseña que ingresó para “SUDO” se conserva durante 15 minutos por terminal. Esto elimina la necesidad de ingresar la contraseña una y otra vez. para cambiar el nombre de los archivos, utilice “” MV “” espacio “nombre de archivo” espacio “nuevo nombre de archivo” Vamos a cambiar el nombre del archivo de prueba a uno nuevo. para esto, tenemos que escribir “” MV “” prueba de espacio y un nombre de archivo que sería, test1 en este caso Una vez hecho esto, podemos enumerar los archivos y veríamos que el nombre del archivo para la prueba se cambiaría para probar uno. Se trataba de hacer cambios en los archivos. ahora aprendamos un poco sobre la manipulación de directorios. comenzando con la creación de directorios, este comando creará un subdirectorio en su actual directorio de trabajo. Que es, generalmente su directorio de inicio. Veamos cómo funciona en la terminal escribiendo el comando “mkdir” con el nombre del directorio Podríamos crear un nuevo directorio. Aquí, crearemos un nuevo directorio llamado Songs. Así es como crearemos un nuevo directorio en el directorio de inicio. si desea crear un nuevo directorio en una ubicación diferente a la del directorio de inicio, debe usar el siguiente comando por ejemplo, escribir el siguiente comando crearía un nuevo directorio de música en el directorio “TMP”. como podemos ver aquí Tenemos un nuevo directorio de música creado bajo Tmp. También puede crear más de un directorio a la vez. vamos a ejecutar este comando en la terminal y mirar los resultados. Para crear múltiples directorios, debe escribir el comando “mkdir” Seguido por los nuevos directorios que le gustaría crear Aquí creamos tres nuevos directorios como los siguientes Ejecutar el comando “LS” mostraría que estos tres nuevos directorios se han creado en el directorio de inicio. para eliminar un directorio Use el comando “rmDir” nombre de directorio espacial ahora, queremos eliminar el directorio “direc” usando el comando “RMDir” Para esto, debe escribir lo siguiente Pero asegúrese de que no haya ningún archivo en nuestro subdirectorio bajo el directorio que desea eliminar. Borre los archivos y los subdirectorios antes de eliminar el directorio principal. Al ejecutar el comando list veríamos que el directorio “dirEc” ha sido eliminado para cambiar el nombre de los directorios, use el comando “MV” que cubrimos anteriormente. ahora nos gustaría cambiar el nombre de “Direct2” a Directorio a uno nuevo. para esto necesitamos ejecutar el comando “MV”. Así es como lo haríamos. al ejecutar el comando “LS” veríamos que el “direct2” a “directorio” ha sido renombrado como directo para. pasando al comando “hombre”, “Hombre” significa manual que es un libro de referencia de un sistema operativo Linux. es similar al archivo de ayuda que se encuentra en el software popular. Para obtener ayuda sobre cualquier comando que no comprenda, puede escribir “man” space Comando el terminal abriría la página de manual para ese comando Por ejemplo, si escribimos el comando “man” space “LS” y presionamos Enter la terminal nos daría información sobre el comando list directory contents El siguiente es el comando “historial” El comando “historial” muestra todos los comandos que ha usado en el pasado para la sesión actual de la Terminal. esto puede ayudarlo a consultar los comandos anteriores, los ha ingresado y reutilizarlos nuevamente en sus operaciones. En la terminal, este comando nos daría la siguiente salida También puede presionar la tecla de flecha hacia arriba en su teclado y seguir el comando que ha ejecutado antes De esta forma, puedes ejecutarlos nuevamente. El siguiente es el comando “borrar”. Este comando declara todo el desorden en el terminal y le da una ventana limpia para trabajar. Al igual que cuando inicias la terminal. veamos cómo funciona este comando. Aquí, tenemos una ventana de terminal con muchos comandos y su salida. ahora si quieres limpiar todo esto Simplemente podemos ejecutar el comando “borrar” y todos los comandos y su salida serán limpiados. Muchas veces tendrías que escribir comandos largos en la terminal, a veces puede ser molesto y si quieres evitar tal situación luego copiar pegando los comandos puede venir a rescatar Para copiar el texto de la fuente, puede usar “CTRL + C” Pero para pegarlo en el terminal, debe usar la combinación de teclas “CTRL + shift + V” también puedes probar “shift + insert” Ahora vamos a resumir rápidamente todos los comandos aprendidos hoy El comando “LS” enumera todos los archivos y directorios en el directorio de trabajo actual El comando “ls-R” enumera archivos y subdirectorios. el comando “Ls-a” enumera los archivos ocultos El comando “ls-la” enumera los archivos y el directorio con información detallada como permisos, tamaño, propietario, ETC. el comando de nombre de archivo “cat” crea un nuevo archivo el nombre del archivo “gato” muestra el contenido del archivo, con este comando puede unir dos archivos y Almacenar la salida en un nuevo archivo “MV” File new, file Path moverá un archivo a su nueva ubicación el siguiente es El siguiente es el nombre del archivo “MV” nuevo comando de nombre de archivo que cambiaría el nombre del archivo a un nuevo nombre de archivo. “SUDO” es un comando importante Y permite a los usuarios habituales ejecutar programas con los privilegios de seguridad del superusuario o raíz el comando RM borra un archivo El comando “mKDir” seguido del nombre del directorio crearía una nueva victoria en el directorio de trabajo actual. Usando el mismo comando seguido por el camino y el nombre del directorio crearía un nuevo directorio en la ruta especificada. “rmdir” eliminaría un directorio del sistema. El nombre “MV” nuevo, el nombre le daría a un directorio un nuevo nombre El comando “hombre” nos da información de ayuda sobre un comando. el siguiente es “Historial”. Este comando da una lista de todos los comandos pasados ​​escritos en la sesión de terminal actual. El último es el comando “borrar” que borra la terminal. gracias por ver que te veré en el próximo tutorial. Welcome to the video tutorial on setting file permissions on Linux Security [is] a big concern [for] Linux. Which is a clone of Unix the multi-user operating system as Linux is used in mainframes and servers it is vital to keep it safe from a maligned user who can corrupt change or remove crucial data This is why for effective Security Linux divides? authorization into two levels ownership and permission The concept of permissions and ownership is crucial and Linux Here we will discuss both of them. Let’s start with ownership and the next files Every file in directory in your Unix or linux system is assigned three types of owner The first one among them is User a user is the owner of the file by default [the] person who created a file becomes its owner Hence a user is also sometimes called an owner the next one is a group a User group can contain multiple users all users belonging to a group will have the same access permissions to the file So you can add many users to a group and assign group permission to a file So [that] only the group members can read or modify them Furthers other who is any other user who has access to a file? This person has neither created the file nor does he belong to a user group which owns the file Practically it means everybody else Hence when you set the permission for others it is also referred as set permissions for world Now the big question arises, how does Linux? distinguishes between these three user types so that a user a Cannot affect [a] file which contains some other user B’s vital information or data It is like you do not want your colleague who works on your linux computer to view your personal images This is where permissions set in and they define user behavior let us understand the permission system on Linux every File in directory and your Unix or linux system has three permissions read write and execute Define for all the three users that we discussed earlier This permission gives you the authority to open and read a file read permission on a directory gives you the ability to list its content the Write permission gives you the authority to [modify] the contents of the file The write permission on a directory gives you the authority to add remove and rename files stored the directory In windows an executable program usually has an extension Exe which you can easily run in Unix or Linux. You cannot run a program unless the execute [permission] is set for example in The sample File here the user does [not] have the permission to execute it hence we would get an error message If we try to open it Therefore if the execute permission is not set you will not be able to run the file Let us learn more about Linux security by examples running the LS L command on terminal gives us the following result by picking the Details for the first file we get to know that the file types and access permissions are displayed by [this] Weird-lookin code let us learn what it is [about]? Let’s first learn about the characters R stands for read permission W is for Write Permission x is? execute permission and the – stage no permission Here the first – Implies that we have selected a file else if it were a directory d would have been shown The next part of the code is our w – and it tells us the permissions for the [Amna] This suggests that the owner can read the file write or edit the file But he cannot execute the file since the execute bit is set to – which is no permission The next part is our [w] – it is for the user group which is going [99] and the group members can read the file and Write or edit the file by design many Linux distributions like Fedora sent us Ubuntu ETc, we’ll add users to a group of the same group name as the [username] Thus a user Tom is added to a group named Tom The third part is for the world which means any user it says are – – this means that the user can only read [the] file Moving on let’s say you do not want [your] colleague to see your personal images You can easily do so by changing file permissions We can use the chmod command which stands for change mode Using the command we can set permissions Is that read write and execute on a file or directory for the owner group and the world? There are two ways to use the command The first one is the absolute mode and the second one is the symbolic mode starting with the first one in this mode file permissions are not represented as characters, but a three-digit Octal number the table shows numbers for all the permission types For [example] the number 0 states no permission and the symbol for it is three hyphens? successively, the number 1 would be 4 execute and the symbol for the same is – – x Let us understand this by an example Here we have a file with the main test We will change the permissions for this file using the absolute mode of chmod command Here we use the seven six for absolute code and now the permissions for test file would change Let’s examine the changes to the permissions Seven six for absolute code says the Following read write and execute for the user or the owner Read and write for the user group and read only for other users So this is how we can change the permissions using the absolute mode of the chmod command? Moving on to the next way in the absolute mode we change permissions for all three owners But on the symbolic mode you can modify permissions of a specific owner as well. It makes use of mathematical symbols to modify the file permissions So the plus sign would mean adding a permission to a file or [directory] – would suggest removing the permission and equal to we’ll set the permission and override the permissions set earlier the various owners are represented as u g o and a Let us learn it with some examples Again, we would use the same test file and change its permissions using the symbolic mode By using oh is equal to r. Wx we have changed permissions for the other users? Let us check what the new permissions are as you can see here the other users have the read write and execute permission for this test file with g + x we have added execute permission to the group Now if you will check the test file it will show the read write and execute permission for the Crew by Running [u-] [R] we will remove the read permission for the user or the owner of the file let us see how [it] looks [now] as We can see the permissions for test file. Do not show any read permission for the owner This is how we can use the two methods for Chmod command and change permissions? for changing the ownership of a file or directory You can use this command in case you want to change the user as well as group for a file or directory You need to use this command that is try them on terminal Let us change the file ownership for the file command Right now it shows that the owner of the file is guru 99 By running the town command with sudo we would be able to change the owner of this file to [root] As you can see the new owner for the file commands is root Now let’s try changing the user group and group ownership of the same file Right now the owner of the file is root and the user group of the file is also root We will change it to guru 99 for this we would need to run the command sudo shower on the owner name then the group name and then the name [of] the file let us see the changes in the user and group ownership as You can see here the commands file is now owned by [Guru] 99 and it also belongs to the same user group in Case you want to change only the group owner of a file you will need to run the following command Here we will again change the group owner of the file commands to root the Chgrp Command Stands for change group now let us go through some important tips on user groups the file [ETC’] group contains all the groups defined in the system In order to reach this file. You need to go to the file system click on EDC directory and then search for the group file Upon opening this file. You would be able to see all the groups present on your [linux] system You can use the command groups to find all the groups you are [a] member of So it shows here that the guru [99] user is a member of the following groups You can use the command new grp to work as a member of a new group other than your default group Let’s see how it works. Let us now change the user group for the user guru 99 to cD-Rom Let’s create a new file as test Upon checking the detailed information for this file you will find That they use a group for the test file is CD-rom instead of the default guru 99 The next step says that you cannot have two groups owning the same file The one group can be [a] subgroup of another which can own a file Let’s now quickly summarize. What we have learnt the [next] being a multi-user system uses permissions and ownerships for security They are free user types on a linux system user group and other Linux divides the file permissions [in] to read write and execute denoted by are w and x the Permissions on a file can be changed by [ch] Mod command which can be further divided into absolute and symbolic mode? The ch o w and command can change the ownership of a file or a directory? Use the following command [for] changing the user or the user and the user group at the same time the chgrp command Can change the group ownership the command is Chgrp? group and the file name Thank you for watching I will [see] you in the next tutorial welcome to the video tutorial on print email and install software on [Linux] as We already [know] now that commands clear vital [road] and performing different Processes on Linux easily let us learn some more of them for performing Day-To-day tasks For printing in Linux you need to use the Pr command This command helps in formatting the file for printing on [the] terminal But more your original file does not get affected at all by the formatting that you do There are many options available with this command which help in making desired format changes on the file for example using the option – x will divide the Data into x Columns if you want to assign a header value to the text file you can use the [hyphen] h? Space the header name option with the Pr Command let us learn some of them by examples tools is a file We would like to print, but we want to divide its content and three columns for this we will use the command Pr Space – [3] space the file name 3 being the number of Columns that we would divide the data of this file and dip Upon entering the command we would see the file contents have been divided into three columns If you want to assign a header to the file print you can do so with the help of this command Home tools would be the title or [the] header of the file tools And running the command we would see that the file tools has a header now For denoting all lions with numbers you can try this command This command Denotes all the lines in the file with numbers Once you’re done with the formatting and it is time for you to get a hard copy of the file you need to use The Following command [it] can be LP filename, or LPR [filename] in case you want to bring multiple copies of the same file you can use the number Modifier [M] and the commands will change to LV Space [Hyphen] N The number of copies then the file name or the other one displayed on the screen If you have multiple printers installed on your system Then you can specify them using these commands the first one says LP space – d the name of the printer and then the name of the file that you would like to print in Windows the Installation of a program is done by running the setup dot exe file The installation file contains the program as well as various dependent components required to run [the] program correctly in Linux or Unix installation files are distributed as Packages, but the package contains only the program itself Any dependent component will have to be installed separately which are usually available as packages themselves? You can use the apt commands to install or remove a package You need to run this command with sudo let us use it to install Vlc media player on the system On running this command sudo would ask us for the password Upon entering the password System would start installing the VLC media player The easy and popular way to install programs on ubuntu is by using the software center Most of the software packages are available on it, and it is far more secure than the files downloaded from the internet So if you want to install the VLc media player you can either click on This thumbnail or you can search [for] it on the search bar Clicking on it will give you the option installed this way, you can install the software easily moving on to sending emails You will need to install the package mail [x] for it on terminal this can be done by using the sudo apt-get, install command Terminal will prompt if you want to continue or not press y to that once you hit the enter key The Postfix configuration screen would open and it will ask you to select the mail server configuration type Choose the one that you want and hit ok this will install the mail x package on your linux system Once done, you can then use the following syntax for sending an email Going by the Syntax that we saw in the slide We would have to type in mail x followed by the email address that we want to send the email to Once you hit the enter key the prompt would ask you to enter the subject To enter the body of the message [you] would have to hit the enter key again, and then you can type in The message that you want to Convey Once you reach the end of the message press control-D and your email would be sent Let us quickly recap [what] we have learnt in this tutorial Using the Pr Command you can format and print the file directly from the terminal the formatting you do on the files does not affect the file contents In Unix and Linux software is installed in form of packages a package contains the program itself [any] dependent component needs to be downloaded separately You can also send emails from the terminal using the mail x command Let us go through the commands as well pr x divides the file into x Columns Pr each command Assigns a header to the file pr n. Is used to denote the file with line numbers LpN C file name and Lpr C file name and C copies of a file and Pd printer name and L Pp printer name followed by the file name Helping specify the name of a printer ab get is a command used to install and update Packages e-mail acts followed by the address followed [by] the body is the command to send email. Thanks for watching this tutorial Welcome to the video tutorial on redirection in Linux most of the commands we have learned so far [take] an input and give an output the standard input device is the keyboard and The standard output device is the screen Linux is a very flexible operating system And you can change the standard input and output devices that is learn how this redirection works starting with output redirection The more than symbol is used for output or std out redirection let us try this on terminal Using the Ls. L command we can see the detail information of the files and directories in our home directory Now we can redirect the output of the command and is al to a new file listings instead of the screen this is how we would do it on Viewing the contents of the file listings we would see [that] the output of the command LS [L] has been stored in this file This is how we can redirect the output of a command It is important to note here that you should use the right file name while free Direction If there is an existing file with the same name [it] will be overwritten so if we redirect this statement to the same file listings We would find that the contents of this file have been overwritten So if you do not want the file to [be] overwritten, but want to add more content to an existing file You should use the more than more than or creative. This is how we would try it Now if we run the cat command for the same file, [we] would see that it has not been overwritten Instead the new content has been added [to] it Moving on to input redirection The less than symbol is used for input or stdin redirection an Example of this is the mail program in [Linux] which can help you send emails from the terminal? You can type the contents of the email using the standard device keyboard But if you want to attach a file to email you can use the input redirection operator Let Us move on to some advanced redirection techniques Which make use of file descriptors, but before this we must know that in Linux or Unix Everything is a file be it a regular file directories or even devices all of them are files moving on to descriptors every file has an associated [number] called file descriptor or Fd your screen also has a file descriptor When a program is executed the output is sent to file descriptor of the screen and you see program output on your monitor So whenever you execute a program or a command at the terminal 3 files are always open They are the standard input the Standard output and the Standard error by default error Stream is displayed on the screen and Error redirection is routing the errors to a file Other than the screen these files are always present whenever a program is run as explained before a file descriptor is Associated with each of these files. So why error redirection error redirection is one of the very popular features of Unix or Linux? Frequent Unix users will reckon that many commands give you massive amounts of errors for instance while searching [for] files One typically gets permission denied errors these errors usually do [not] help the person searching for a particular file While executing shell scripts you often do not want error messages cluttering up the normal program output The solution is to redirect the error messages to a file. Let’s learn our interaction with some examples The first one is for redirecting an error log to a file here we are executing a program called Telnet and Running it gives us the following error the file descriptor for the Standard error S2 So by using [two] with the [mode] [in] sign really direct the error output to a file named error File thus the program output is not cluttered with errors and if we want to see the error file we can do It this way Let us go through another example which uses the fine statement using the find statement We are searching the current directory for a file with main starting with mine On running the command it finds a file with the name my texts But it also shows an error for the directory files which cannot be accessed Now using the output redirection. We will now redirect the error message to a file named error lock Now we can see the error in the file contents Let’s see a more complex example server administrators frequently list directories and store both error and The standard output into a file which can be [processed] later they use this command Here the more then ampersand writes the output from one file to the [input] of [another] file Error output is then redirected to standard output which in turn is redirected to the file dir List has both the output is written to file the [ir] list [let’s] try it on terminal Let us first is the contents of the directories documents and Abc The command says that the directory ABc was not found and it lists the contents of the documents directory Now we add the output redirection to a file named dir list, but we would see that the error still shows To correct this we now redirect the error output to standard output by using to more than sign Ampersand and one Hence both standard and error output are written to the file dir list This is how we can use output redirection [let] us now go through the key points of this tutorial Each file in Linux has a corresponding file descriptor associated with that The keyboard is the standard input device while your screen is the standard output device The more then is the output redirection operator More than more than appends output to an existing file less than is the input redirection operator More than 10 percent redirects output of one file to another you can redirect error using its corresponding file descriptor [-] Thank you for watching I’ll see you in the next tutorial Welcome to the video tutorial on Linux Pipes gre [p] and Sort command If you are new to linux you might wonder what role do pipes play and running the operating system While they are not the real pipes that you have in mind the symBol pipe Denotes a pipe and Linux If you want to use two or more commands at the same time and run them consecutively you can use pipes Pipes, enable Unix or Linux users to create powerful commands which can perform complex tasks in a Jiffy? Let us understand this with an example when you use the cat command to view a file Like the file fruits here which has a lot of pages the Prompt quickly jumps to the last page of the file And you do not see the content in the middle to avoid this you can pipe the output of the cat command To less which will show you only once call lengths of content at a time This way you can scroll the file content using the arrow keys and Once you reach the end of the file has cue to exit instead of less you can also use the PG and more commands and You can view the file in Digestible bits and scroll down by simply hitting the enter key once You reach the end of the file you can again hit the enter key And you would see the command prompt this was about reading the file So what if you have to search a file for text or a piece of information? For this we need to use the gre key command Using this command you can scan a document and reverse you can also customize the search results the way you want The syntax for this command is gre p space the search strength let us see it in action These are the contents of the file fruits Now we will [use] the gre P command to look for avocado The syntax for this would be cat space the file name space the pipe Then the gre P command followed by the string that we [want] to search which would be avocado in this case Hitting enter would search the file fruits for the string avocado Let’s also use the same command to search for Melon This is how the command search for the desired strength in a file? You can [use] the following options with the Gi Ep command So if you want to display the lines that do not match the searched Strength you can use the option – V with the Gi Ep command Let us try some of them on terminal here. We will try the option I with the gr. Ep command The I option filters the string which is a from all the lines in the fire. This is why we would get this result The Sort command comes in handy when [you] are trying to list the contents of a file alphabetically the syntax for this command is sort space filename let Us say we want to sort the content of the same file fruits? Alphabetically right now. We see that the name of fruits are all jumbled up Using the Sort command we will easily be able to do it in a jiffy You can use the following extensions for the sort command and get different results so if you want to reverse the sorting of the Contents of a file you can use the option hyphen r. Let us try it and see how it works out Using reverse sorting we have changed the alphabetical order of the contents of the fruit file It is now understand. What our filters? Filter is the output from the first command which becomes the input for the second one When you pipe [to] commands the filtered output of the first command is given to the next one? Let us understand this with the help of an example. We will again use the same file for this example now We want to highlight only the lines that do not contain the character a in lowercase You will do it this way This is how we can filter the output of the first command and use it as the input for the second one Now [what] [if] we want this result in the reverse order? We will need to run this command or the same Here the cat command will display the contents of the file fruit the result would be outputted to the gre [P] command which will not search for strengths which contain the character a The output of this command would be then worked on by the Sort command To display the result in the reverse order This is how we can use filters And summarize what we have [learned] today pipes help combine two or more commands a Filter in a pipe is an output of one command which serves as the input to the next The gre P command can be used to find strengths and values in a text document Sort command Sorts out the content of a file Alphabetically less PG and more commands are used for dividing a long file into readable bits Thank you for watching I will see you in the next tutorial Welcome to the video tutorial on regular expressions in Linux. So what are regular expressions? Well, they are special characters. No not these Yes Which help search Data and match Complex patterns regular expressions are shortened as reg exp or reg x Some of the commonly used commands with regular expressions are tr Sed Vi and gr. E p these are some of the basic [projects] Let us learn their practical use Let’s consider the sample file Now we will use the gre p command to look for lines containing the letter a let’s use a regular expression now Using the cat symbol we will search [for] the content let’s start with the character a the caret matches the start of a string This is why only lines that start with the character a are filtered lines which do not contain the character a at the start? arek note Let us look into another example Here we will look for the character t in the same file sample Now let us select only those lines which end with the character t for this we will need to use this regular expression Which matches the end of the string this [is] how we can use regular expressions moving on to the interval regular expressions? They tell us about the number of occurrences of a character or string. They are So if we use the first expression it will match the preceding character appearing and times exactly Let us try it on terminal Let us filter out all the lines that contain the character p Now if we want to check the character p appearing exactly two times in a string one after the other for [this] the syntax would be which will give us this result it should be noted here that you need to add – Capital E with these regular expressions the next is the extended regular expressions these contain combinations of more than one expressions some of them are So if we use the backward slash with [a] plus sign [it] will match one or more occurrence of the previous character Let us learn their practical use Here we have searched for the character t Suppose we want to filter out lines where character a precedes character t. We would have to use the command like sense Running this command would give us this result this is how we can use the extended regular expressions the syntax for base expansion is either a sequence or A comma separated [list] of items inside curly braces the starting and end of items in a sequence are Separated by two periods let us go through some of the examples here [we] would use the echo command to create strings using the brace expansion another example of the same would be This would create a string from a to z one more example would be this an advanced example of the breast expansion is this This is how we can create strings using the bass expansion? To recap what we have learned regular expressions are a set of characters used to check patterns and strengths They’re also called read Exp and regex it is important to learn regular expressions for writing scripts some basic regular expressions are the [period] Symbol replaces any character the caret matches the start of the string the dollar sign? matches the end of a string some extended regular expressions are Here the backslash used with the plus sign matches one or more occurrence of the previous character the backslash used with a question mark Matches [zero] or One occurrence of the previous character some interval regular expressions are Here the N in the curly braces matches the preceding character appearing N Times exactly in the second expression the N And m and the curly braces Match preceding character Appearing n times but not more than m and the last regular expression displayed here matches the preceding character Only when it appears and times or more the brace expansion is used to generate strings It helps in creating multiple strings out of form thanks for watching this tutorial. [I] hope to see you in the next one Welcome to the video tutorial on environment variables. So what is a computing environment it is the platform? Constituting an operating system with a processor where a user can run programs The Springs [are] [stored] [as] a variable in Computer science [a] variable is a location for storing of value which can be a file name Text number or Any other Data It is usually referred to with its symbolic name which is given to it while creation the value the stowed can be displayed deleted edited and resaved variables play an important role in computer programming because they enable programmers to write flexible programs as They are related to the operating systems that we work on it is important to know some of them and how we can influence them So what are environment variables? Well, they are the dynamic values which affect the processes or programs on a computer? They exist in every operating systems and their types may Vary They can be created edited saved and deleted They also give information about the system behavior and they change the way software or programs behave for example the lan g environment variable shows the value of the language that the user understands this values read by an application Such that a Chinese user is shown a Mandarin interface while an American user is shown an English interface These are some of the common environment variables will go through them once we know how to access variables in order to Determine the value of a variable You need to use this command it [is] echo space the dollar sign then the variable name Now we’ll use some common environment variables starting with echo Path variable This variable contains a colon separated list of directories in which your system looks for executable files When you enter a command on terminal the shell looks for the command in different directories? [mention] in the path variable [if] the command is found it executes otherwise it returns with an error command if not found Variables are case sensitive Make sure that you type the variable name in the right letter case otherwise you may not get the desired results So if we type in the path variable this way, we will not receive a result Moving on to another environment variable the user environment variable gives us the name of the user trying out the home environment variable Would give us the default path to the [user’s] home directory the ENV command displays all the environment variables You can create your own user-defined variable with Syntax Variable name is equal to the variable value Again bear in mind that variables are case sensitive and usually they are created in the upper case So let us make a new variable with this value Now for checking the value of the newly created variable you would have to type in this command make sure you do not leave space between the variable name and the equal to sign otherwise you will get an error and Do not miss out on the dollar sign when you are checking the value of a variable if you press the enter key Without the dollar sign the echo command would take the variable name as a string instead of a variable Moving on to deleting variables the following syntax can be used to remove a variable from the system It says unset space the variable name that is try it on terminal so now if you want to remove the new Variable and its value that we created earlier. We would have to type in [less] on the terminal now [if] we run the echo command followed [by] the new variable We would not get a result the unset command removes the value of a variable permanently Let us do a quick recap environment variables govern behavior of programs in your operating system? Let us also go through the commands that we have learned the echo variable command is used to display value of a variable The ENV command displays all environment Variables the variable name is equal to variable value command creates a new variable unset followed by the variable name removes a variable from the system export Variable is [equal] to value is used to set value of an environment variable Thank you for watching this tutorial. [I] hope to see you in the next one Welcome to the video tutorial on Communication in Linux While working on a linux operating system you may need to communicate with other devices for this you can use some basic utilities which will help you communicate with Networks are the linux systems and remote users So let us learn them one by one starting with pain This utility is commonly used to check whether your connection to the server is healthy or not This command is also used in analyzing network and [host] connections Tracking Network performance and managing it testing hardware and software issues The Ping Command is [peng] space IP address or the [host] name let’s try some of its examples on terminal on running ping space the IP address system sends 64 bytes of Data to the IP address if Even one of the data packets does not return or is lost it would suggest an error in the connection you can press the cTRL C key combination to exit from the pain loop Similarly we can use peng space the hostname, we will try WWL comm here and check the connection to the server? This is how you can use the ping command? Moving on to FTP it stands for file Transfer protocol And it is the most preferred protocol for Data transfer Amongst computers you can use FTP for logging and establishing a connection with the remote host uploading and downloading files navigating through directories and Browsing contents of the directories the syntax to establish an FTP connection with the remote host is FTP space IP address or the host name let us check this on terminal when you have entered the command it will ask you for authentication wire username and password Go ahead and enter the username and then the password Once connection is established and you are logged in you may use these commands to perform different actions So let us run some [of] these commands on terminal so if you want to display the files in the current directory Of the remote computer you need to type in the dir command if you get an error While running commands then you can turn on the passive mode this mode ignores Firewalls and Data port errors, so let us go [ahead] and run the dir command again With the help of the put command we will upload a file with the name local file Press [enter] and the file will be uploaded on the remote computer Now if you want to check the presence of this file, you can again run the dir command And you will be able to see the local file on the remote computer Now let us go ahead and download a file from the remote computer Here we have a file Which we would like to download the command to download a file from the remote computer is get Space the file name which is remote file in our case, so let us go ahead and run this command FTP says that the file was successfully transferred The quit command would log us out from FTP This is how you can use FTP for Data transfer amongst computers the next utility is telnet It helps connect to a remote linux computer [then] programs remotely and conduct Administration this utility is similar to the remote desktop feature found in Windows machine The syntax for this utility is telnet space IP address or hostname For demonstration purpose here we have connected to our own computer or the local host using telnet Once you have put in your username and pass good And you are authenticated you can execute commands just like you have been doing so far using the terminal The only difference is if you are connected to a remote host the commands will [be] Executed on the remote machine and not your local computer Talat has become obsolete over the years as more secure protocols to connect to remote computers have come up This is why we move on to the next utility which is ssh It stands for secure shell and is used to securely connect to a remote computer Compared to ten net ssh [is] secure We’re inclined server connection is authenticated using a digital certificate and passwords are encrypted Hence it is widely used by system administrators to control remote linux servers the Syntax to login to ssh is Ssh, space username at IP address or the host name let us try it on terminal So let us login to ssh using the command and so sage space username, and IP address or hostname Once you enter the login command the terminal would ask you for the password upon entering the password Ssh, would be logged in now You can go ahead and run commands on it like the way you do on terminal the difference Is that the command would be executed on the remote computer? So let us try one more command dir this would list all the directory contents in the home directory So let us find out. What [is] the present working directory? [so] right now. We are working on home. Google. Nine-nine. Similarly on typing an exit You [would] be logged out off as as age Let us go through the key points of this tutorial communication between Linux or Unix and other different computers networks and remote users is Possible the ping command checks whether the connection with a host name or the IP address is working or not? Run Ping IP address or hostname on the terminal FTP is preferred protocol for sending and receiving large files you can establish an FTP connection with the remote host and then use commands for uploading downloading files Checking file and browsing them telnet utility helps you to connect to a remote linux computer and work on it Ssh, is a replacement for telnet, and it is used by system administrators To control remote linux servers. Thank you for watching this tutorial. I would see you [in] the next one Welcome to the Video tutorial on managing Processes in Linux so what is the Process an? Instance of a program Is called the Process in Simple Terms Any Command That You give To your linux Machine Starts A [new] Process [for] example When you launch offers to Write an Article it creates This Process and it’s Possible to have Multiple Processes Aka Instances for the Same Program There are Two types of processes The First one Are the Foreground processes They run On the Screen and need input from the user [an] Example of them are the office Programs The Second One are the Background processes There are in The Background and Usually do not need user input Them an Example of them is the Antivirus That You use you Can start A foreground Process either from the Dashboard or you Can run it from the Terminal so if You want to run the [Badge] your Media Player you can go to – Type in Banshee and You Can run the Media Player this way Otherwise you Can go to terminal and Type in Banshee and Execute The Command When using the terminal you will have to wait until the Foreground Process runs If You start a foreground Process Or a Program From the terminal then you cannot Work on the terminal Till the Program is Up and Running to avoid such A? Situation [You] Can Run the Program and send it to the Background so [that] the terminal Remains available to you, let’s learn how To do This for Running a Process on the Background you need to start the Program by typing in the Command Main Once Execute The Program you need to present CTRl + Z then Type Bg to send Process to the Background so if We try the same on terminal? We need to put in the Command Name for the Process or the Program and When it Starts Running, We need to Press in CTrl + z which will stop the Process Then We need to type in Bg to send the Process Into the Background This way you Can send the Process to the Background and Keep the terminal free you can use the Command Fg to Continue a Program Which is Stopped and bring it to the Foreground The Simple Syntax for This Utility, Is Fg. Space the Job Name an Example for this [S]. We will launch the banshee Media Player stop the Process and Then? We will type in Fg to Continue the Process on the Foreground? Let’s Look at some other Important Commands to Manage processes starting With Top this Utility Tells The user about all the running Processes on the linux Machine the Syntax for this Utility is talked so when We run This [Utility] on the terminal you Would find A lot of Fields With Different Abbreviations Which we’ll learn now one by one? So starting with the Pid it is the Process Id of each Task You Can See here that it Differs for each task or a process The user is A user Name of the task, owner so it Can vary from root to as, Many user Accounts that you have on your linux System The Pr. Is the Priority It can Be 20 which Would be highest or Minus 20 Which Would be lowest and? I is a nice value of a task the vi rt That you Read on [the] Screen is the Virtual Memory used it Shows Memory in Kilobytes The re S is the Physical Memory used and it also Shows in Kilobytes As [h] [R] is a Shared Memory used and it also Shows in Kilobytes The S. Is the Status There are five Types of the same the first one Is d which Says Uninterruptible Sleep [Our] is Running? S is Sleeping T is traced or stopped and the last one Z is for Zombie the Cpu Percentage that you See is the Percentage of [Cpu] Time The Percentage of Memory Is the Physical Memory Used Time Plus Tells Us about the total Cpu Time and the Command Is the Command Name We will Discuss Some of These Fields in This Tutorial? The next One is the Ps Utility This Utility Stands for Process Status It is similar to the task Manager that Pops Up in A windows machine When, We use CTRl + alt + Delete? This Command Is similar to the top Command but the Information Displayed is Different You Can use These in Texas with the ps Command That Is try Them so to Check all the processes Running under A user you need to use this Command It will Give Us all the Information On Processes and Programs Running under Guru 99 you can Also Check the Process Status of a single Process by using the Syntax Ps Space Pid but First, We need to find the Pid of a Process which, we can do by typing in Pid of Space the Process Name here We’ll type in Banshee and Check its Pid So it Says Two seven eight Three So let’s go Ahead and Check the Process Status of This single Process This is how you can get Information on the Status of A single Process This Command Terminate Running Processes on A linux System The Syntax for The kill Command Is kin Space Pid In order to use this Utility again you need to [know] the Pid of the Process that you want to kill Let us Try it With an example let’s Say We have the mozilla Firefox Program Running on our System and We want to kill it using the terminal? for This you need to find out the Pid of the Program Firefox So now We know the Pid of the Program Firefox Let’s go Ahead and kill it? If The terminal Does not return With an error It implies that the Program was Terminated Successfully Linux Can Run A lot of processes at a time Which Can slow Down the Speed of some HiGh-Priority Processes and Result in Poor Performance to [avoid] [this] you Can tell your machine to Prioritize processes as per your Requirements This Priority Is Called Niceness and Linux and it has A value between Minus 20 to 19 the lower the Niceness Index the higher Would be the Priority given to that task The default Value of all the processes IS [0] To start a Process With an Iceless Value other Than the default value you need to use the Following Syntax It Says Nice Space – N Then The nice Value then the Process Name if There’s some Process Already Running on the System then you can Realize its Value using the Syntax Let Us Understand this by an Example so let [us] launch the banshee Media Player with A Nice Value other Than The default value Which is [Zero] so here We have chosen 19 as a nice Value for this? Program Now Let Us run it Now after Cleaning the terminal With [the] clear command, We will now run the Top Utility and Check the Niceness Value of the Program Banshee So here We have the banshee Media Player and its Niceness value Shows 19 Now for realizing The value of an Already running Process We need to know it Pid and as it Shows Here The Pid for The Banshee Media Player Is 3 8 4 4 So let us go Ahead and Realize its Value From 19 to Minus 20 for this We need to type in Sudo [Realize] then the New Nice value Which Would be 20 here Then – P Then The Pid Which was Three eight Four four Once We execute This Command? Sudo Would ask for the Password Upon Entering the Password Terminal Would Tell Us that the nice Value of the Process Id [Three] [eight] [Four] [Four] has Been Changed from 19 to Minus 20 This Is how you Can Prioritize the processes Running on your linux System and Make it more efficient Moving on to df Utility it Suppose the free Disk Space on all the file System the Syntax Says Df Upon Running This Utility, We will See all The file Systems on our? Computer With The used and The available Disk [Space] If You want the above Information in A readable format [then] you can use the df Utility With this Option Now you can See the total Size the used and The available Disk Space on [your] Computer This Command Shows The Free and The [used] Memory on the linux System you can use the arguments free Space – M to Display Output in Megabytes Or you can go with free Space – gene to Display the Output in Gigabytes Let’s try, Them so if We type in free Space – Enemy, We will See that the total Memory on the System is One Thousand Two megabytes and out of it? 860 megabytes Have Been Used this is how you Can Check the free and The used Ram on your linux System Let us Summarize Quickly Any [Learning] Program or a command given to a linux System is called a process A Process Could Run in Foreground or Background The Priority Index of a Process is called Nice and Linux Its default Value Is 0 and it Can vary Between 20 to Minus 19 The lower The Niceness Index the higher Would be the Priority given to that task Let Us go, Through the Utilities as well The Bg Command Sends a Process to the Background the [Fg] Command Runs a stopped Process in Foreground Use Top to get Details on all active processes Ps Gives The Status of Processes Running for End-User Ps Space Pid Would Give The Status of A particular Process Pid Off Space Process Name Gives the Process Id of the Process or Program kill Space Pid Terminates a Process or a program Nice Starts a Program with A given Priority Green Eyes Changes The Priority of an Already Running Process df Would Give You the free hard, Disk Space Information on your System and free Because the free Ram Details on your system Thank you for Watching this tutorial [I] hope to see you in the next one you Welcome to the video tutorial on [VI] editor There are many ways to edit files on a linux operating system. You can either use the Gui or work on the terminal For those who like to go with the terminal the VI editor is the most popular and classic text editor in the Linux family Some reasons which make it a widely used editor are first. It is available in almost all the Linux distributions it works the same across different platforms and Distributions it is user friendly hence millions of [gen] [x] users. Love it and use it for the editing needs Nowadays they advanced versions of the VI editor available and the most popular one among them is well Which is VI improved? Some of the other ones are alvis and Vi [Nano] and While It is wise to learn VI because it is feature-rich and it offers endless possibilities to edit a file in order to work on VI Editor You need to understand its operation modes they can be divided into two main parts and the first part is the command mode The VI Editor opens in this mode and it only understands [commands] In this mode you can move the cursor and cut copy paste the text This mode also saves the [changes] you have made to the file Commands are case sensitive, [so] [make] [sure] you use the right [Linton] case The second part is then surd mode This mode is for inserting text in the file You can switch [to] the insert mode from the command mode by pressing I on the keyboard Once you are in the insert mode any key would be taken as an input for the file on which you are currently working To return to the command mode and save the changes you have made you need to press the escape key So moving on to starting the VI editor You need to open the terminal and type Vi is paste a new file name or VI space an existing file name You can create a new file or edit an existing one This is how we will create a new file in VI editor and it would open in the command mold On the launch screen, we see a lot of team decides on the left. They denote unused Lines For this the file length that you have created shows at the bottom now in order to add content to this file We need to press the I key on the keyboard and only then you would be able to type in something Now let’s learn some of the VI editing command It should be noted here that you need to be in the command mode to execute these commands Also, Vi Editor is case sensitive. So make sure you type the commands in the right letter case so let us go ahead and try [some] of the VI editing commands on terminal as Mentioned [earlier] when you enter the VI mode it is on the command mode by a default In order to add content you need to press the I key on the keyboard and only then you would be able to write something Otherwise if I go ahead and type in hi right now, I would get the error buzz on the system Vi Editor does not display any change on the screen when you jump from the command mode to the insert mode or vice versa This is an important point to keep in mind while you are editing or creating files on the VI editor So let’s press I and add some content Once you are done writing the content and you want to save the file You cannot do so in the insert mode you need to jump back to the command mode to do so and in order to move From the insert mode to the command mode you need to press the escape key on the keyboard Once you have done it You will no longer be [able] to write or edit the file So let’s say I want to open a [new] lion when I am in the command mode I need to press the old letter on the keyboard and the VI editor would open a new line for me and then insert [mode] [I] can go ahead and type in more content and here if I want to undo all the changes to the entire line I need [to] go back to the command mode by pressing the Escape [Key] and Then press the letter U in the upper case this way all the changes made to the entire line would be Reverted now let’s say if I want to write off the cursor I can press the letter a in the small case when I’m in the command mode once I do it I Can go ahead and write the content again? Make sure that you press the right command otherwise you will end up [making] undesirable changes to the file These are some more of the commands that you [can] use in the command mode Let us now learn how to move within a file You need to be in the command mode in order to navigate in a file the default keys for Navigation are k g h and L R you can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard Let us try some of them Right now I’m in the command mode now. I can always [use] the arrow keys to navigate within a file Otherwise you can use the L key on the keyboard to [move] right? the h key to move left The k key to move up and the key J to move down This is how you can navigate in a file that you are editing When it comes to saving and closing the file. You should be again in the command with mode the keystrokes are So if you want to save the file and quit you can either use the shift + z set key combination or you can use the : WQ if you want to save the file But keep it open then you can use the : w or if you want to quit without saving : q is the key combination So let us go ahead and save this file that we have created in Order to do so we will press the escape key to enter the command mode once done We will then press the shift + z z key combination and we would return to the terminal the other method to save and exit the file is by typing in : Wq when you are in the command mode? Once you have typed it in press enter and you would return to the command prompt Now in order to view the file that we [created] We need to type in cat space file [neal] and here is the file that we made This is how you can use the VI editor to create [a] new file or edit existing one let us quickly recap What we [learned] in this tutorial the VI editor is the most popular and commonly used linux text editor It is usually available in all linux distributions It works in two modes command and insert command mode takes the user commands and the insert mode is for editing text you should [know] the commands in order to work on your file easily learning to use this editor can benefit you in creating scripts and Editing files. [thank] you for watching this tutorial [I’ll] see you in the next one Welcome to the video tutorial on Shell scripting Operating systems are made of many components, but there are two prime components [are] kernel and shell The Kernel is at the nucleus of a computer it makes the communication between the software and the hardware possible while the Kernel is the innermost part of an operating system a shell is the outermost one a Shell in a linux operating system takes input from you in form of commands processes them and then gives an output It is the interface [through] which a user works on the program’s Commands and scripts a shell is accessed by terminal which runs it When you run the terminal the shell issues a command prompt Which is usually the dollar sign wherein you can type your input, which is then executed when you hit the enter key? [so] if we type in the Pwd command [and] hit the enter key the output or the result is thereafter displayed on the terminal? The shell wraps around the delegate interior of an operating system protecting it from accidental damage [hence] the name shell There are two main shells and neelix the first one is the bourne shell The prompt for this shell is [a] dollar sign and its derivatives Are the Posix Shell known as as h? The conch shell also known as as h and the bourne-again shell also known as bash, which is the most popular [of] them all? Second one is the C shell The prompt for this shell is a percentage sign, and it’s subcategories are [sea] [Shell] also known as Cs. H Tops Sea Shell also known as TCs. H Will discuss bash shell base shell scripting in this tutorial? So what is shell scripting and why do I need it? Writing a series of command for the shell to execute is called Shell scripting it can combine lengthy and repetitive sequences of commands into a single and simple script Which can be stored and execute it anytime? This reduces the effort required by the [end-user] Let us understand the steps in creating a Shell script First create a file using a vI editor or any other text editor second nameless curve filed with an extension dot as h Side the script with the hash sign followed by Shriek followed by the been sh Path write some code save the script file as file name dot as h For executing the script type bash followed by file name dot as h Here the hash sign followed by Shriek is an operator [Khalsa] Bank which directs the scripts to the [interpretation] Location let’s create a small script using the VI editor Will start with typing VI followed by the file name? Do not forget to enter the sh extension By pressing the I key on the keyboard will enter the insert mode of the VI Editor. Let’s start with the script You need to start your script with Shebang sign followed by the bin sh. Path every time you create a shell script Let’s type in the command and quickly go ahead and save this file now [in] order to run the script we need to type in bash followed by the script name Again do not forget to type in the sh extension Upon hitting the enter key we will see that the command LS is executed Commenting is important in any program in Shell the syntax to add a comment as the hash sign followed by the comment that is understand this with an example So let us create another Sample script Now [you’d] again start with the bank sign followed by the bin as age path Let us execute the command Pwd Now here. We would like [to] add a comment. Which will tell us that the PWd command stands for present working directory Let us quickly go ahead and save the script now upon Running script 1.8, we will find that the PWd command was [executed], but the comment present working directory was ignored Moving on to what I shall variables has discussed earlier variable stored Data in form of characters and numbers Similarly shell variables are used to store information, and they can be read by the shell only For example this piece of script creates a shell variable and then prints end This is a small script which will create and it will use variables so let us start with creating the script we start the script as usual with the Shebang followed by the bend as h path Now let us start with writing the script As we have completed writing the script let us go ahead and save it now let us go ahead and run the script file for this we need to type in bash followed by The Script name which is easy script dot s h in our case once we hit the enter key The Script starts executing and it asks us, what is your name? We will type in the name Guru nine nine Upon hitting the enter again The Script now tells us. How do you do and it echoes our name? Let us put in good as You can see here the script repeats the remark that we have entered. This is how we can create script based on bash shell Now this is a simple script you can develop advanced scripts which contain conditional statements loops and functions Shell Scripting will make your life easy and linux administration a breeze Let us quickly recap what we learnt in this tutorial Kernel is the nucleus of the operating systems and it communicates between hardware and software Shell is a program which interprets user commands through Cli like terminal The bourne Shell and the [C]. Shell are the most used shells in Linux Shell Scripting is writing a series [of] commands for the shell to execute Shell variables store the value of a strength or a number for the shell to read? Shell scripting can help you create complex programs containing conditional statements loops and functions Thank you for watching this tutorial out. See you in the next one Welcome to the video tutorial on perl programming Perl is a programming language [specially] designed for text editing it is now widely used for a variety of purposes including Linux system administration Network Programming web development ETC. Well is of great importance in a linux operating system where it can be used to create programs Handle databases and emails graphical user interface Development and Networking and system administration Even though shell scripting is available to programmers. They prefer pearl because Programming on perl doesn’t cause portability issues. Which is common when using different shells in Shell scripting Error handling is very easy on [firm] you can write long and complex programs on Perl easily due to its vastness This is in contrast with shell that does not support Namespaces or use objects Inheritance ETc Shell has fewer reusable libraries available Nothing compared to pearls [sipan] Shell is less secure it calls external functions for example Commands Like MV or Cp on the contrary holders useful work while using internal functions Let’s learn how to create a perl script [you] should always start your script with [sabacc] User [Bill] heard the directs the execution [to] perl interpreter on your system now Let’s learn how to add a variable and input or output it on perl so if you want to define a variable value You need to use the syntax variable is equal to value and this way you can store the values to a variable in form of strength and number when it comes to displaying a string or value on the screen you need to use the print command it would output the string of value and if you want to assign input to a variable in perl you to use the Stdin operator, so the syntaxes variable is equal to as dDim now Let us go through some important points add a comment on Pearl with [the] hash symbol Remember that every statement in perl ends with a semi Column [pearl] is case sensitive make sure you use the right case You can use any text editor to write your perl scripts You should then save the script file [in] dot [Pn] extension which will make it recognizable Make sure you do not use places when you are naming the perl script file Now let us understand the steps in creating a perl script Create a file using Vi or any other text editor named skip file with extension dot Pl Start the script with the shebang sign followed by user bin [perl] path write some code Save the Script file as file name dot Vl for executing the script type bash space filename Vl Let’s write a perl script which will take input from the user [and] display it back through the script so let us go ahead [and] create a new pearl script file on VI editor as Discussed earlier [you] need to start your script with the shebang sign followed by user then pearl path Once done hit enter and write the script that [you] want to execute Now here is the script that we want to run? Now as we are done writing the script let us go ahead and save it Now is the time to run the script? For running the script you need to type in Fern followed by the script name Once you hit the enter key the file would ask you for an input So it says we are take your name please [let] us write our name guru [9] [9] Once you had enter the file returns the input value by displaying our name So this is how you can create perl scripts Let us quickly recap what we learned in this tutorial. Well is a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation Now it is used for [a] wide range of tasks including system administration web development Network Programming Gui development and more whole files have dot Pl extension There are three types of variables in perl scalar lists and hashes. Thank you for watching this tutorial See you in the next one Welcome to the video tutorial on virtual terminals Linux is a multi-user system which allows Many users to work on it simultaneously [so] what if different users need to work on the same system at a time? How do you do that? This is where we need the virtual terminals So let [us] learn about them virtual terminals are similar to the terminal that we have been using so [far] They are used for executing commands and offering input The only difference is that we cannot use the mouse with the virtual terminals Therefore you need to know the keyboard shortcuts they are one of the most distinguished features of Linux as Virtual terminals enable a number of users [to] work on different programs at the same time on the same computer so let us learn how to launch a virtual terminal the steps to launch a virtual terminal are press the CTRL + alt + F1 Key Combination on your keyboard Enter the user Id and password and you will be good to go Let’s try it on a bun do So let us go ahead and press the cTRL + alt + F1 key combination as soon as we do it We see the login screen for the virtual terminal so let us put in the user name Upon entering the password We would be able to [login] to the virtual terminal 1 as Usually there are six virtual terminals on a linux operating system And you can log into them as different users to conduct different tasks You can navigate between the six virtual terminals using the following command it says CTRL + alt + F1 to F6 Key F1 being the first while F6 being the last virtual terminal you [can] work on all of them at the same [time] in Order to know which virtual terminal you are working on note the tty given at the top so right now We are working on the first virtual terminal so if you want to switch to the second virtual terminal you can press the CTRL + alt + F2 key combination to Navigate pressing CTRL + Alt + F3 Key Combination will take you to the third virtual terminal Tty is a teletype number which you can also know by typing the command tty on the terminal So right now We are working on tty [1] it is important to note here that you need to log in to each Virtual terminal to be able to [work] on them The [7th] terminal is the one which we have been using so [far] in the Linux Tutorials it can be accessed by using the key [combination] CTRL + alt + F7 so let us try it on the operating system, so pressing the CTRL + alt + F7 key Combination would take you to the terminal window on the screen These are some of the shortcuts that you should be aware of while working on the virtual terminals So using the home or cTRl + a key combination would move the cursor to [the] start of the current line Preset would reset the virtual terminal history would list the commands executed by the user the [arrow] up shortcut would scroll up in history and You need to enter to execute a command cTRL [+] d would lock you out from the virtual terminal and using CTRL + alt + delete Key combination would reboot the system now. Let’s try some of them on a virtual terminal Let’s start with the history command [ensuring] this command would give us all the commands executed by the user in the past Now if you want to clean the virtual terminal window you need to type in Reset in order to run the commands from the history you can press the arrow up key And you would be [able] to see all the commands used in the past You can then hit the enter key and the command would be? executed Let’s say we want to use the echo command with this strength But here we have misspelled the word echo as we cannot use the mouse with virtual terminals We need to use the left and right arrow keys to navigate Or I can simply [press] the home key and it would take me to the start of the current command line Pressing end would take me to the end of it. [so] [let’s] say if I want to remove this letter [I] can take the cursor to the letter And then I need to press the [delete] key and it would clear out their own letter If you want to auto complete the command you can press the tab key So if I type Ec and press the tab key the command would be auto completed to echo This is how we can use the virtual terminal shortcuts? So let us press the cTRl + d key combination and logout from the virtual terminal Let us do a quick recap virtual terminals RCL eyes which executes the user commands There are six virtual terminals which can be launched using the shortcut keys They offer multi-user environment and up to six users can work on them at the same time unlike terminals You [cannot] use the [mount] with virtual terminals to launch a virtual terminal press CTRL + alt + F12 six key combination on the keyboard and use the same command to navigate To return to the home screen of the linux system use CTRL + alt + F7 and it will take you to the terminal Thank you for watching this tutorial. [I’ll] see you in the next one Welcome to the video [tutorial] on Unix administration as Linux is a multi-user operating system There is a high need of an administrator Who can manage user [accounts] their rights and the overall system security? You should know the basics of Linux admin so that you can handle the user accounts and user groups [in] Linux every user is assigned an individual account which contain all the files information and data of the user you [can] create multiple users in a linux operating System so let [us] learn the different ways to do so right now We [only] have one account under this linux operating system now We’ll go ahead and add some more accounts to it Let’s start with terminal now in order to add a new user account using terminal you need to type in this command It would be sudo space add user space the new user name that you would like to add Once you enter the terminal would ask you to enter the password for the new account let us enter the password it Will then ask to Retype the New Unix password? Once done. It will ask you for the full name of the user We will use sap space 99 in our case now. It says room number. Let us put in 101 The work phone you can put in any number [of] your choice Put in the home contact number then other you can leave it if you want press the y key on the keyboard If the ever given information is correct and hit enter once you see the command prompt on the terminal It means that the user account has been created [so] let us check it on the system in order to check the user accounts present orion system. You need to go to system settings Then you need to click on user accounts, and you would be able to see all the accounts present on computer so now here It shows your nine-nine as the administrator and [Sap] 99 as the standard user The other way to create a user account is by using the Gui In order to do so you need to click the unlock button here and then put in the password to authenticate Once authenticated [you] need to then click on the plus sign here to create a new user Now as you can see a new window has popped up here And it would ask us to fill in the information for the new account the account type offers two choices Standard and administrator if you want the new user to have administrative access to the computer select administrator as the account type Administrators can do things like add and delete users install software and drivers and change the data and time otherwise choose Standard let us now go ahead and fill in the full name as Java 99 if you want the username to be different as your full name you can do that, too So let us put in Java 1 0 0 here and click on create The new Account would show, but it would be disabled by default To activate it click [the] password option and add a new password Then retype the same password and click on change This way the new account would be enabled Let us now learn how to delete or disable an account So let’s say we want to remove the Sap 99 user account from the system in order to do so using the terminal we need to first remove the password information For the account this is the command that we would use to do so now let us run it on the terminal On hitting enter the terminal would ask you for the password on entering the password terminal would say that the password expiry information was changed now all you have to do is delete the account and we will use this command to do so So let [us] go ahead and delete the user account Sap 99 So if you check the user accounts window you would see that the Sap 99 account has been removed In order to do so using the Gui you need to go to the user accounts window again and click on the unlock button Again put in the password for authentication, and then highlight the account that you want to delete right now We want to delete the Java 99 account once highlighted you need to click on the minus sign here Which will delete the selected user click on it? And then the system would ask whether you would like to delete the temporary Home directory and [Mail’s] [Bui] files or keep them right now We do not need the files so we’ll click on delete once done You would see that the Java 99 account has been deleted Now to add a user to a group you need to use the following syntax which says sudo space usermod space – a space hyphen capital g then the group name then the user name You can view the existing groups on your linux operating system by entering the following command It says group mod, then press the tab key twice Now let us go ahead and add the user group. Main to [their] user account guru [nine] [nine] and Two the password authentication and the user group would be added to your user account You can check whether the user is in a group by using the command cat space Etz space group, and you would find that the user account Guru 99 has been added to the user group mail For removing a user from the user group you need to use the following sentence It says sudo space del user space the user name then the group name, so let us try it on terminal Now for removing the user account guru [9:9] from the user group mail We need to type in sudo space then user space the username which would be guru 99 then the user group which was male and As you can see here that the user guru 99 was removed from the group mail successfully if you do Not want to run commands on the terminal for managing users and groups then you can install a Gui ad on the command for the same as So let us go ahead and install it on the system Once you had enter Thumbnail would start installing the Gui add-on and it would ask you whether [you] would like to continue the installation press y, and hit enter This would install the Gui add-on on the operating system Once the installation is complete [you] need to go to [dash] and type in user then click on users and groups Here you would be able to find out all the user accounts and you can click on manage groups to manage the groups that they [are] a part of Moving on to the finger command it is used to procure information of the users on a linux machine [you] can use it on both local and remote machines Thus index finger gives it out all the logged users on the remote and local machine Thus Index finger space the user name Specifies the information of a specific user so let us quickly recap what we have [learnt] in this tutorial You can use both Gui or terminal for user administration you can create Disable and remove user accounts, you can add or delete a user to a user group Let us go through the commands as well sudo space Adduser space the user name as a user Sudo space pa ss. WD space – L space the user name disables a user PSeudo userdel space – our username delete sir user Sudo space usermod space – a space – G in capital letter Followed by group name and then the [username] adds a user to a group you need to use sudo space Del user Space user than the group name to remove a user from the user group the finger command gives information on all logged Users the finger space username gives information of a particular user. Thank you for watching this tutorial [I] would see you in the next one

Only registered users can comment.

  1. The music didn't bother me at all…I found your tutorial to awesome and well explained…thank you so much for the step by step method…a lot of the other videos are very confusing and disorganized.

  2. Sir, please help me install an application using Wine But Installed Apps
    are not showing up in the Applications Menu In kali linux

  3. Thanks for wonderful training, tutorial is high quality and in detail. As a fresher in linux I learned lots of basic things. Thanks & appreciate.

  4. an instructive video indeed !
    the only inconvenience is the music playing non stop in the back ground , makes it hard to listen for long time

  5. i cannot here you over the background music. get ride of it! make a duplicate copy of this video with out it and see which is liked best i like your videos if i can here you the noise is distracting!

  6. Linux was created as Linus' own personal Os and he wanted an Os. which he can use both at home and school. And at that time, Unix was hardly available. Also, he was using Minix at that time. he started linux as his own personal project and never intended to be publicly available.

  7. Wonderful tutorial! Thank you so much, I've been trying to learn Linux but every tutorial gave very long commands of which I wished to understand the syntax and this is just what I needed 🙂

  8. hey can you make video..
    A TPM error (7) occurred attempting to read a pcr value
    error after installation of booting process

  9. Kernel and OS are not the same thing. Linux is not an OS. Free Software is not free as in free coffee, but free as in free speech. Open Source is a lie, a disguised corporate capitalist agenda for proprietary control over software. UNIX and Linux are not the same thing. This was a short introduction to an idiot's mind.

    Remember…. as St iGNUcious says, "There is no system but the GNU system. Linux is one of its kernels". There is no OS called Linux. It is GNU/Linux…. pronounced as GNU-slash-Linux, NOT GNU-Linux NOR GNUandLinux. It is GNU-slash-Linux. GNU for life. Stallman for life. Free Software for life. Death to proprietary software. Death to open source.

  10. Good video , thanks for such a great hard work.please upload SAP basis and Hana modules also. I very much thanks to Guru 99

  11. Super, der Titel suggeriert das es sich um ein Tutorial in deutscher Sprache handelt, und dann ist es in englisch! Geil auf Klicks?

  12. Trying to practice the Pr command options. I followed and created a tools list and tried to divide the data into column but when i type in pr -3 tools and enter. It came out a blank page and when i check the file, the data still remain the same. Can anyone advice me how to solve this issue? The other Pr commands also reflects the same thing

  13. Amazing…Master Piece of Information for Beginners…Thank you very much for the tremendous efforts in creating this video. God Bless You

  14. thank you so much for wonderful tutorial video. I really enjoyed your teaching, it was worth watching. Thank you so much sir. Lots of love from me

  15. 1:09 Linux, in and of itself, is ONLY a kernel. Linux Mint and Ubuntu are operating systems built from the Linux kernel.

  16. The background musick is just horrible shit…..Had enough by 8:03 turned it off…gave it thumbs down…If you don't mind pissing your subconscious off for 2hrs 29mins by feeding it that shit then good fucken luck to you

  17. Although a very useful video i feel this title is a bit misleading. When im thinking about an introduction to an OS im looking for how everything is put together and communicates with each other. Things like file systems, drivers, package managers, interfaces & desktop managers, ect. So one can get an idea of why there are 1000 different distros and how to narrow down to what you might want to start on. Ive heard enough if your a " beginner try ubuntu " but nobody ever says why or they simply say its personal taste so go try out 100 different styles.
    Linux is so much more then just the terminal and in no way does it replace a GUI or vice versa. You know why people like GUI? Overview. We dont live in the stone ages anymore. It almost funny to see an introduction video thats nothing but 2,5 hours of terminal commands…….And people wonder why they still use Apple and MS.
    Its like watching an introduction to windows with nothing but powershell commands.

    Really this should be called an introduction to the Terminal in Linux.

  18. This is way to complicated I have no confidence that i could do this with out a expert sitting next to me to make sure I don't screw it up.
    To many steps how about some one invent an installer for this.
    I have problems waking up my computer from hibernate. You lost me on why you need the USB plug in thingy. Where do get USB thingy my local Radio shack went out of bisuness.
    Why can't you download to your desktop and install Thats how i install games from Big Fish, Thats How I installed my browser. Why the USB.

  19. I’m sorry this is not secure once I’m done with tutorials. I’m going to navagate this site and show you my exact problems.

  20. Great content for beginners, especially since you compare to windows. I imagine most beginners are somewhat familiar with windows. However, I am not sure why you chose to use the background jingle in your videos. It is distracting and becomes maddening after the first half hour or so. Suggest you remove it if possible and embrace the fact that learning an OS is pretty boring.

  21. Is it mandatory that the remote host should use linux os in order to try out ftp,telnet & ssh commands?

  22. I'm studying for my A+ exam for CompTIA 220-1001. I 'am using Guru99 and Professor Messor and Mike Meyers as my teachers. I love them all. they are detailed and easy to understand. Thank you guys

  23. me: hmm so i heard linux is free but i also heard its difficult well lets learn it searches up how to use linux on google
    google: heres a youtube link
    me: ok, well lets cli- 2 hours 29 minutes and 4 seconds nevermind

  24. I think Linux Mint is a much better choice over Ubuntu for new Linux users. In fact I have found that most of those who try Linux and get discouraged and give up, started on Ubuntu. I would not recommend it to anyone.

  25. I'd just like to interject for a moment. What you're referring to as Linux, is in fact, GNU/Linux, or as I've recently taken to calling it, GNU plus Linux. Linux is not an operating system unto itself, but rather another free component of a fully functioning GNU system made useful by the GNU corelibs, shell utilities and vital system components comprising a full OS as defined by POSIX.

    Many computer users run a modified version of the GNU system every day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which is widely used today is often called "Linux", and many of its users are not aware that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the GNU Project. There really is a Linux, and these people are using it, but it is just a part of the system they use. Linux is the kernel: the program in the system that allocates the machine's resources to the other programs that you run. The kernel is an essential part of an operating system, but useless by itself; it can only function in the context of a complete operating system. Linux is normally used in combination with the GNU operating system: the whole system is basically GNU with Linux added, or GNU/Linux. All the so-called "Linux" distributions are really distributions of GNU/Linux.

  26. I think its not the best course for beginners but for those who have knowledge on Linux and want to have a quick recap this is the best one I came across ..

  27. In as much as it’s open source and all, I need something with a nice ecosystem. I don’t need it to be perfect and that’s why macOS is my preferred choice cuz it just works. Not interested in this.

  28. Question. 

    So, if you were to delete a directory without first deleting it's subdirectory and/or files, what would happen?

  29. I like the tutorials, however I do have some critical comments. When you referred to where program files are stored, the careful viewer would have noted that you pointed to the "/bin" directory. This and "/sbin" are, of course, locations for programs. However, the only programs stored in these two directories are the programs necessary to startup the system and to provide essential tools for fault maintenance.

    In all distros user programs are stored primarily in "/usr/bin." In some distros regular users only have "/bin" and "/usr'bin" in their command search path. "/sbin" and "/usr/sbin" are considered to be directories containing "system level" programs.

    While the user that installs the distro has superuser (sudo) capability, not all distros allow additional users (such a children maybe) to have such privileges. In all distros, it is possible for anyone with the administrator authority to limit the access of any user other than root.

    At least in some distros, the chown command only needs to be run with the sudo command when root is either the owner or group owner of the file (or for security reasons trying to make root the owner or group owner of a file).

    The pr and lpr commands are NOT, by themselves, suitable for printing a great many types of files. I believe that it should have been pointed out that once the first time setup of the system is complete printing from within most GUI based programs is performed essentially in the same manner as in Windows.

    The transition from printing to software installation was too abrupt and the discussion of printing was not 'closed' nor was the subject of software installation 'opened.' Also apt and apt-get are the cli installation tool for Debian based systems. Other systems such as Fedora do not use apt.

    Now this is clearly an opinion… I suggest that it would be useful to mention that the grep command can be used to search though directories as opposed to just searching files and can do so recursively.

    Excellent discussion of a very complex subject, regular expressions!

    In the discussion of environment variables you failed to mention what the export command actually does and why you might need it.

    In your discussion of ftp, telnet, ssh, you did not mention rcp/scp. Also use of both telnet and rcp are so strongly discouraged that issuing the telnet command usually runs ssh on modern distros as rcp run scp.

    You might want to mention that a command on the cli can be run in the background by simply appending "&" after the command name. Thus it is not necessary to run the command, stop the command, and push it into the background. The "bg" command is really only truly useful when you start a command in the foreground that you really should have started in the background.

    Also "killall <program name" allows one to kill a program without knowing the PID. However, this one can be tricky with GUI programs since the name in the header may not, and usually is not, the actual name of the program. In the case for "df" it is useful to know that you can specify "df , <device name or mount point> … <device name or mount point> … " to get the information for just your disk partition(s) or mount points of interest. So if you have installed everything in /dev/sda2 (for example), "df /dev/sda2 -h" would give you the data for just that partition leaving out the myriad of other mount points. Also "df / -h" would do the same. If your home directory is on a separate partition then you could use "df -h / /home" and get a listing for both.

    The "vi" command exists on all UNIX systems and probably all Linux system. It is usually linked to vim or other replacement (as you suggested).

    I agree with your insistence on naming scripts with an sh extension as this clues anyone, including the original creator of the script 6 or more months later, to the nature of what the file is. However, it is not actually required, it is only a practice that all good computer folks use. Also, if you set the execute permissions on the file itself, then you can execute the script by just typing its name without specifying bash first.

    When discussing comments in scripts I believe that you should have mentioned that in blatantly obvious examples such as you are using one would not normally insert a comment. But in complex scripts inserting comments about what various commands and sections of the script are doing is almost vital when one wishes to modify a script some time after it was created. It is close to mortifying to look at a script that you created last year with the question "What the heck was I doing here" in your mind and no answer in the script itself.

    In the perl tutorial summary, you throw out the comment that there are 3 types of variables in perl, but did not describe them in the presentation.

    In the virtual terminal tutorial you mentioned the tab completion key but you did point out that if you type tab once and nothing happens, you need to type it a second time because the portion of the command you want that you have already typed does not resolve into a unique choice. Typing tab twice in that case presents you with a list of all possible completions.

    In the administration tutorial when you finished entering the data on the cli for the user it would have, I think been a good idea to mention that the "Y" was capitalized to show that it is the default response. That is, if you don't enter anything but hit the enter key "Y" is assumed. This capitalization of the default response is quite common throughout Linux. If you update this video you might want to drop the mention of the finger command as it is not installed by default in many systems. Also, most systems are configured to not accept finger requests from outside the machine (i.e. remote finger requests are refused). As you probably know this is done for security reasons.

    Again, I would like to emphasize that I am impressed with the quality of these tutorials and my comments are strictly intended to provide information for your consideration.

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